Per11_over - Preview of Period 11: Ionizing Radiation II...

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Preview of Period 11: Ionizing Radiation II 11.1 How Is Ionizing Radiation Detected? What do you see in the cloud chamber? What other methods do we have for detecting ionizing radiation? 11.2 What Natural Sources of Radiation are Present? Are these sources of radiation harmful? Can we avoid exposure to them? 11.3 What is Radon? Why is radon harmful? 11.4 Rates of Radioactive Decay How can capacitor discharge be used to model radioactive decay? How can the half-life of a radioactive source be used to find the age of the source?
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Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation that strips electrons from atoms, turning the atoms into charged ions. Materials containing atoms with unstable nuclei are radioactive. As the nuclei decay, they give off ionizing radiation The radiation the nuclei give off is some combination of alpha, beta, or gamma particles, depending on the nuclear reaction. Radiation Particle emitted A= # of nucleons Z= # of protons Electric Charge alpha α helium nuclei He 4 2 4 2 +2 beta β - electron (e ) 0 0 -1 beta β + antielectron (e + ) 0 0 +1 gamma γ high energy photon 0 0 0 11- 2
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The Cloud Chamber Alcohol vapor in the cloud chamber is cooled by dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide). The alcohol temperature is slightly below the temperature at which it would normally condense into droplets. (The vapor is supercooled. ) Ions are produced along the paths of the particles that result from the decay of the radioactive sources. These ions seed the supercooled vapor and form tiny raindrops around the ions, leaving visible tracks. The tracks can reveal the ionization density of the source, since some tracks appear thicker (more droplets) than others. Cloud chamber vapor trails that do not come from the radioactive sources are from cosmic rays – very high energy protons from space. 11-3 & 4
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Detecting Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation can be detected by: Film because the energy deposited by ionizing radiation in photographic film causes chemical changes in the film, much as light does. A
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This note was uploaded on 06/11/2011 for the course PHYSICS 104 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '11 term at Ohio State.

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Per11_over - Preview of Period 11: Ionizing Radiation II...

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