Per12_over - Preview of Period 12: Nuclear Reactions 12.1...

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Preview of Period 12: Nuclear Reactions 12.1 Nuclear Binding Energy How can the binding energy of a nucleus be estimated from a binding energy graph? 12.2 Mass as a Form of Energy How can the binding energy of a nucleus be calculated? 12.3 Particle Accelerators How can accelerators produce endothermic nuclear reactions? 12.4 Nuclear Reactions in Stars What is the energy source of stars? How are the chemical elements formed? 12.5 Types of Stars How does an Hertzsprung-Russell diagram illustrate the types of stars?
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Nuclear Fission and Fusion Nuclear fission occurs when an unstable nucleus breaks into smaller fragments. Uranium-235 ( U 235 92 ) is the only nucleus that fissions spontaneously. Other unstable nuclei require the input of activation energy to fission. Nuclear fusion occurs when nucleons fuse into a nucleus. Two protons, with one proton changing into a neutron, may fuse into a deuterium nucleus. Energy is released as a product of both fission and fusion reactions. Nuclear Binding Energy Graph 12-2
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Fe U Fusion Fission Mass number A Binding energy per nucleon (MeV) 12-3
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Nuclear Binding Energy Calculation: E = Mc 2 Binding energy = [(mass of unbound protons + neutrons) – (mass of nucleus)] c 2 Binding energy = [Z M p + (A – Z) M n – M nuc ] c 2 M = mass of a free proton = 1.6726 x 10 –27 kg = mass of a free neutron = 1.6749 x 10 –27 kg nuc = mass of the assembled nucleus in kg Z = number of protons in the nucleus A-Z = number of neutrons in the nucleus c 2 = (speed of light) 2 = (3 x 10 8 m/s) 2 Binding energy per nucleon = binding energy n u m b e r
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Per12_over - Preview of Period 12: Nuclear Reactions 12.1...

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