Cell - What we need to know All living things are made of...

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What we need to know All living things are made of Cells Prokaryote (single cell) Eukaryote (multiple cells) Chromosomes Cell Signaling What is Inside the cell: From DNA, to RNA, to Proteins
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Cells Fundamental working units of every living system. The basic unit of any living organism that carries the biochemical processes of life. Every organism is composed of one of two radically different types of cells: prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are descended from the same primitive cell. All extant prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are the result of a total of 3.5 billion years of evolution.
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Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes According to the most recent evidence, there are three main branches to the tree of life. •Prokaryotes include Archaea (“ancient ones”) and bacteria. Eukaryotes are the kingdom Eukarya and includes plants, animals, fungi and certain algae.
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Cells Chemical composition -by weight 70% water 7% small molecules salts amino acids nucleotides 23% macromolecules Proteins Polysaccharides Lipids Abundant O,C,N. Smaller amounts: Ca, Cl, Mg,P, Na, K,S. Trace:Co,Cu,Fe,Mn,Zn.
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Life begins with Cell A cell is a smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functioning All cells have some common features
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Cells: Prokaryotes v.s.Eukaryotes
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All Cells have common Cycles • Born, eat, replicate, and die
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The DNA for the Eukaryotes is distributed among the chromosomes. For example, the human genome has approximately 3.2 X10 9 base pairs distributed over 24 chromosomes. Each chromosome is a long DNA packed very compactly with the help of a protein in the middle called Chromatin. In contrast , the bacteria carry their genes on a single DNA usually in circular form.
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Eukaryotic Cell Division 1. The chromosomes duplicate themselves and get themselves attached to spot called centromere . 2. They thicken and shorten ( becomes visible under microscope now). 3. The nuclear membrane dissolves and a fibrous spindle is formed, on the chromosomes lined up. 4. The centromeres divide, the spindle fibers tug the chromosome pairs apart. 5. The chromosomes gather at opposite poles, the spindle disappears. 6. The nuclear membrane re-formed, chromosomes, unwind, becomes invisible again and the two cells are formed.
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(1) Double helix DNA strand. (2) Chromatin strand ( DNA with histones ) (3) Condensed chromatin during interphase with centromere . (4) Condensed chromatin during prophase
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Cell - What we need to know All living things are made of...

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