Mol.Bio.PartI - Molecular Biology Part I Genes Genes are...

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Molecular Biology Part I
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Genes Genes are discrete physical entities present in all living organisms that control hereditary characteristics passed from parents to offspring of organisms. Study of heredity is called Genetics . Gregor Mendel an unknown monk in Brno (now in Czechoslovakia, it was in Austria ) published a paper in 1886 that pioneered the experimental study of genetics and his famous laws are called Mendel’s laws . Classical genetics assumed genes are abstract attributes occurring in two variant forms (called alleles- dominant and recessive ). Each individual inherits two genes, one from each of its parents. In the 1930, it was recognized that like all particles in human body, genes must be composed of molecules and the field devoted to understanding the chemical nature of genes was termed molecular biology .
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Mendel and his Genes What are genes? -physical and functional traits that are passed on from one generation to the next. Genes were discovered by Gregor Mendel in the 1860s while he was experimenting with the pea plant. He asked the question:
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The Pea Plant Experiments Mendel discovered that genes were passed on to offspring by both parents in two forms: dominant and recessive . The dominant form would be the phenotypic characteristic of the offspring
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Biological Information Soon biologists realized that genes are not merely units of inheritance but they are actually units of biological information that control all aspects of life birth, growth, functioning as a living organism and death. Bioinformatics and Computational Molecular Biology are concerned with the use of computing and mathematical sciences as tools to advance traditional laboratory-based biology. The need to process an exponentially growing amount of biological information for further scientific advances and to understand its role in heredity, chemical processes within the cell, drug discovery, evolutionary studies etc. have created new problems that are of interdisciplinary nature.
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Protein or DNA By 1920s, it was established that: Genes reside on chromosomes Chromosomes are made of protein and DNA Chromosomes were discovered in 19 th century as threadlike structures in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell that could be observed under microscope as the cells begin to divide. Biochemical analysis concluded that chromosomes contain both DNA and protein. The question was: What is the genetic material? Protein? DNA? Both? The chemical structures of both DNA and protein were still unknown mysteries.
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Properties of Genetic Material Genetic Material: Must be able to exist in almost infinite variety of forms Protein was believed to be able to form long chains macro molecules . Many proteins were known.
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Mol.Bio.PartI - Molecular Biology Part I Genes Genes are...

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