mol.evo - Molecular Evolution Outline Evolutionary Tree...

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Molecular Evolution
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Outline Evolutionary Tree Reconstruction “Out of Africa” hypothesis Did we evolve from Neanderthals? Distance Based Phylogeny Neighbor Joining Algorithm Additive Phylogeny Least Squares Distance Phylogeny UPGMA Character Based Phylogeny Small Parsimony Problem Fitch and Sankoff Algorithms Large Parsimony Problem
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Early Evolutionary Studies • Anatomical features were the dominant criteria used to derive evolutionary relationships between species since Darwin till early 1960s • The evolutionary relationships derived from these relatively subjective observations were often inconclusive. Some of them were later proved incorrect
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Evolution and DNA Analysis: the Giant Panda Riddle For roughly 100 years scientists were unable to figure out which family the giant panda belongs to Giant pandas look like bears but have features that are unusual for bears and typical for raccoons, e.g., they do not hibernate In 1985, Steven O‟Brien and colleagues solved the giant panda classification problem using DNA sequences and algorithms
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Evolutionary Tree of Bears and Raccoons
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Evolutionary Trees: DNA-based Approach • 40 years ago: Emile Zuckerkandl and Linus Pauling brought reconstructing evolutionary relationships with DNA into the spotlight • In the first few years after Zuckerkandl and Pauling proposed using DNA for evolutionary studies, the possibility of reconstructing evolutionary trees by DNA analysis was hotly debated • Now it is a dominant approach to study evolution.
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Emile Zuckerkandl on human-gorilla evolutionary relationships: From the point of hemoglobin structure, it appears that gorilla is just an abnormal human, or man an abnormal gorilla, and the two species form actually one continuous population. Emile Zuckerkandl , Classification and Human Evolution, 1963
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Gaylord Simpson vs. Emile Zuckerkandl: From the point of hemoglobin structure, it appears that gorilla is just an abnormal human, or man an abnormal gorilla, and the two species form actually one continuous population. Emile Zuckerkandl , Classification and Human Evolution, 1963 From any point of view other than that properly specified, that is of course nonsense. What the comparison really indicate is that hemoglobin is a bad choice and has nothing to tell us about attributes, or indeed tells us a lie. Gaylord Simpson , Science, 1964
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Who are closer?
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Out of Africa Hypothesis • Around the time the giant panda riddle was solved, a DNA-based reconstruction of the human evolutionary tree led to the Out of Africa Hypothesis that c laims our most ancient ancestor lived in Africa roughly 200,000 years ago
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Human Evolutionary Tree (cont‟d) http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Out_of_Africa2.htm
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The Origin of Humans: ”Out of Africa” vs Multiregional Hypothesis Out of Africa: Humans evolved in Africa ~150,000 years ago Humans migrated out of Africa, replacing other humanoids around the globe There is no direct
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This note was uploaded on 06/12/2011 for the course CAP 5510 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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mol.evo - Molecular Evolution Outline Evolutionary Tree...

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