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conductivity_lect20 - Conductivity Semiconductors&...

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Unformatted text preview: Conductivity Semiconductors & Metals Chemistry 754 Solid State Chemistry Lecture #20 May 14, 2003 References Conductivity There are many references that describe electronic conductivity in metals and semiconductors. I used primarily the following texts to develop this lecture. "The Electronic Structure and Chemistry of Solids" P.A. Cox, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1987). H. Ibach and H. Luth, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1991). Luth, Springer-Verlag, "Solid State Physics" C.M. Wolfe, N. Holonyak, Jr., G.E. Stillman, Prentice Hall, Holonyak, Stillman, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1989). "Physical Properties of Semiconductors" Resistivities of Real Materials Compound Resistivity ( -cm) Compound Resistivity ( -cm) Ca Ti Mn Zn Cu Ag Pb 3.9 10-6 42 10-6 185 10-6 5.9 10-6 1.7 10-6 1.6 10-6 21 10-6 Si Ge ReO 3 Fe3O 4 TiO 2 ZrO 2 Al2O 3 ~ 0.1 ~ 0.05 36 10-6 52 10-6 9 10 4 1 10 9 1 1019 Most semiconductors in their pure form are not good conductors, they need to be doped to become conducting. Not all so called "ionic" materials like oxides are insulators. Microscopic Conductivity We can relate the conductivity, , of a material to microscopic parameters that describe the motion of the electrons (or other charge carrying particles such as holes or ions). where = ne(e/m*) ne(e = e/m* e = ne ne n = the carrier concentration (cm-3) e = the charge of an electron = 1.602 10-19 C = the relaxation time (s) {the time between collisions} m* = the effective mass of the electron (kg) = the electron mobility (cm2/V-s) Metals, Semiconductors & Insulators Energy Energy Energy EF Conduction Band EF EF Valence Band DOS Metal DOS Semimetal DOS Semiconductor /Insulator In a metal the Fermi level cuts through a band to produce a partially filled band. In a semiconductor/insulator there is an energy gap between the filled bands and the empty bands. The distinction between a semiconductor and an insulator is artificial, but as the gap becomes large the material usually becomes a poor conductor of electricity. A semimetal results when the band gap goes to zero. Resistivity and Carrier Concentration The resistivities of real materials span nearly 25 orders of magnitude. This is due to differences in carrier concentration (n) and mobility (). ( Let's first consider carrier concentration. The carrier concentration only includes electrons which can easily be excited from occupied states into empty states. The remaining electrons are localized. In the absence of external excitations (light, voltage, etc.) the excitation must be thermal, this is on the order of kT (~ 0.03 eV at RT) Only electrons whose energies are within a few kT of EF can contribute to the electrical conductivity. Generally this means that EF should cut a band to achieve appreciable carrier concentration. Alternatively impurities/defects are introduced to partially populate a band. Fermi-Dirac Function The Fermi-Dirac function gives the fraction of allowed states, f(E), at Fermian energy level E, that are populated at a given temperature. f(E) = 1/[1 + exp{(E-EF)/kT}] )/kT}] where the Fermi Energy, EF, is defined as the energy where f(E) = 1/2. That is to say one half of the available states are occupied. T is the temperature (in K) and k is the Boltzman constant (k = 8.62 10-5 eV/K) eV/K) As an example consider f(E) for T = 300 K and a state 0.1 eV above EF: f(E) = 1/[1 + exp{(0.1 eV)/((300K)(8.62 10-5 eV/K)}] eV/K)}] eV)/((300K)(8.62 f(E) = 0.02 = 2% Consider a band gap of 1 eV. eV. -17 f(1 eV) = 1.6 10 eV) See that for even a moderate band gap (Silicon has a band gap of 1.1 eV) the intrinsic concentration of electrons that can be thermally eV) excited to move about the crystal is tiny. Thus pure Silicon (if you could make it) would be quite insulating. Fermi Dirac Function Metals and Semiconductors f(E) as determined experimentally for Ru metal (note the energy scale) f(E) for a semiconductor Carrier Mobility Recall the expression for carrier mobility: where, e = electronic charge m* = the effective mass = the relaxation time between scattering events What factors determine the effective mass? m* depends upon the band width, which in turn depends upon orbital overlap. What entities scatter the carriers and reduce the mobility? A defect or impurity ( increases as purity increases) ( Lattice vibrations, phonons ( decreases as temp. ( increases) = e/m* e What is the meaning of k? In our development of the electronic band structure from a linear combination of atomic orbitals the variable k was used to determine the phase of the orbitals. orbitals. What exactly is k? Wavevector It tells us the how the phases of the orbitals change when translational symmetry is applied. Quantum Number Identifies a particular electronic wavefunction (that can hold 2 electrons with opposite spin). Crystal Momentum In free electron theory k is proportional to the momentum of the electron in the kth wavefunction. wavefunction. Crystal Momentum To better understand the meaning of k, consider an electron at the outer edge of the Brillouin zone, where k = /a. The phase of the electronic wavefunction changes sign every unit cell (similar to a p-orbital changing phase at its nodal plane) a = 2a a = /2 k = /a a = /k Combining these two relationships gives: /2 = /k k = 2/ = 2/k 2 The wavelength of the wavefunction is inversely proportional to k. Crystal Momentum Now consider the DeBroglie relationship (wave-particle duality of matter) = h/p p = h/ h/ p = hk/2 hk/2 where., p is the momentum of the wavepacket, wavepacket, h is Planck's constant, 6.626 10-34 J-s The momentum of an electron is directly proportional to k. k is a measure of the "crystal" momentum of an electron in the K wavefunction. wavefunction. From the ideas on the previous 2 slides one can derive the following relationships to describe the properties of a conduction electron: Velocity v = hk/2m = (2/h)(dE/dk) hk/2 (2 /h)(dE/dk) Energy E = (h/2)(k2/2m*) (h/2 * = (2/h)2 (1/{d2E/dk2}) Effective Mass m (2 dE/dk The first derivative of the E vs. k curve. dE/ d2E/dk2 The second derivative of the E vs. k curve. Quantity dE/dk dE/ Velocity m* Wide Band Large High Fast Light Narrow Band Small Low Slow Heavy Wide (disperse) bands are better for conductivity. conductivity. Bandstructure & DOS for Cu EF cuts the very wide (disperse) s band, giving rise to a large carrier concentration, along with high mobility. This combination gives rise to high conductivity. Temperature Dependence-Metals Recall that In Metals The carrier concentration, n, changes very slowly with temperature. is inversely proportional to temperature ( 1/T), due to scattering by lattice vibrations (phonons). Therefore, a plot of vs. 1/T (or vs. T) is essentially linear. Conductivity goes down as temperature increases. = ne2/m* Scattering by Impurities and Phonons Phonon scattering Proportional to temperature Impurity scattering Independent of temperature Proportional to impurity concentration Bandstructure for Ge CB minimum VB maximum p-bands s-band No mixing at . EF falls in the (0.67 eV) band gap. Carrier concentration and eV) conductivity are small. Ge is an indirect gap semiconductor, because the uppermost VB energy and the lowest CB energy occur at different locations in k-space. Direct & Indirect Gap Semiconductors Ge Si GaAs Figure taken from "Fundamentals of Semiconductor Theory and Device Physics", by S. Wang Direct Gap Semiconductor: Maximum of the valence band and minimum of the Semiconductor: conduction band fall at the same place in k-space. (h-Eg)1/2 Indirect Gap Semiconductor: Maximum of the valence band and minimum of Semiconductor: the conduction band fall different points in k-space. A lattice vibration (phonon) is involved in electronic excitations, this decreases the absorption (h-Eg)2 efficiency. Doping Semiconductors The Fermi-Dirac function shows that a pure semiconductor with a Fermiband gap of more than a few tenths of an eV would have a very small concentration of carriers. Therefore, impurities are added to introduce carriers. n-doping Replacing a lattice atom with an impurity (donor) atom that contains 1 additional valence electron (i.e. P in Si). This e- can easily be Si). donated to the conduction band. p-doping Replacing a lattice atom with an impurity (acceptor) atom that contains 1 less valence electron (i.e. Al in Si). This atom can easily accept an Si). e- from the VB creating a hole. Conduction Band e- Conduction Band EF e- EF Valence Band Valence Band Common Semiconductor Structures Diamond Fd-3m (Z=8) Fd-3m C, Si, Ge, Sn Si, Ge, Sphalerite F-43m (Z=4) GaAs, ZnS, InSb GaAs, ZnS, Chalcopyrite I-42d (Z=4) CuFeS2, ZnSiAs2 Properties of Semiconductors Compound Si Ge AlP GaAs InSb AlAs GaN Structure Diamond Diamond Sphalerite Sphalerite Sphalerite Sphalerite Wurtzite Bandgap (eV) eV) 1.11 (I) 0.67 (I) 2.43 (I) 1.43 (D) 0.18 (D) 2.16 (I) 3.4 (D) e- mobility (cm2/V-s) 1,350 3,900 80 8,500 100,000 1,000 300 h+ mobility (cm2/V-s) 480 1,900 --400 1,700 180 --- Temperature Dependence-Semiconductors Recall that In Semiconductors The carrier concentration increases as temperature goes up, due to excitations across the band gap, Eg. n is proportional to exp{-Eg/2kT}. exp{-E is inversely proportional to temperature The exponential dependence of n dominates, therefore, a plot of ln vs. 1/T is essentially linear. Conductivity increases as temperature increases. = ne2/m* p-n Junctions In the middle of the junction EF falls midway between the VB & CB as it would in an intrinsic semiconductor. When a p-type and an n-type semiconductor are brought into contact electrons flow from the n-doped semiconductor into the p-doped semiconductor until the Fermi levels equalize (like two reservoirs of water coming into equilibrium). This causes the conduction and valence bands to bend as shown above. Applications of p-n Junctions Rectifier: Reverse Bias LED MOSFET Transistor Photovoltaic Cell ...
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