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CH100_F09_c6 - Chapter 6 Chemical Nomenclature Sections...

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Chapter 6 Chemical Nomenclature Sections 6.3-6.5, 6.7-6.10 6.2 Formulas of Elements Most elements are written as just as their symbols. Seven elements form stable diatomic molecules at STP: H 2 N 2 O 2 F 2 Cl 2 Br 2 I 2 *** H orses N eed O ats F or C lear Br ight eyes*** Oxygen can also be found as O 3 (ozone), and carbon as C 60 (buckminsterfullerene). A few unique molecular elements exist: P 4 S 8 6.3 Compounds of Two Nonmetals Naming Compounds of non-metals are usually two words. The first word is the element in the formula. The second word is the element but with ide ending The first word may have a prefix.
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The second word usually has a prefix. Prefixes (Table 6.1) mono one hexa six di two hepta seven tri three octa eight tetra four nona nine penta five deca ten Examples P 4 O 10 XeF 6 CO Common Compounds H 2 O water NH 3 ammonia 6.4 Ions Atoms are neutral: # protons = # electrons (e = Z) Atoms can gain or lose electrons: Atoms lose electron(s) to become a positive ion or cation: Na 6 Na + + e - sodium atom loses an electron to become a sodium cation .
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Atoms gain electron(s) to become a negative ion or anion: S + 2e - 6 S 2- sulfur atom gains two electrons to become a sulfide anion . ***name changes to ide for anions of atoms** 6.4 Ions - 2 Ions of main group elements Cations are named as the element. Add a charge superscript to the symbol. Single-species cations are metals. Al 3+ aluminum group IIIA (13) Sr 2+ strontium group IIA K + potassium group IA *** The charge of a main-group cation is the same as the “A” group number *** Polyatomic cations
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H + + H 2 O 6 H 3 O + hydronium H + + NH 3 6 NH 4 + ammonium 6.4 Ions - 3 Anions of elements are named replacing suffix with ide .
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