2011 Slide Set XII Spr10

2011 Slide Set XII Spr10 - Monday III Modes of Speciation A...

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Unformatted text preview: Monday, June 13, 2011 III. Modes of Speciation A. allopatric B. sympatric IV. Macroevolutionary Patterns A. Tempo of speciation 1. gradualism 2. punctuated equilibrium B. Mechanisms for big evolutionary steps 1. heterochrony 2. homeotic gene mutations Monday, June 13, 2011 Homo sapiens Quercus virginiana Drosophila melanogaster I. Binomial nomenclature- 2-part scientifc name- From Linneaus- Genus species (Virgina oak) (fruit Fy) Monday, June 13, 2011 Bidens alba Leaves and fowers Seeds Common names For same species: Beggar’s ticks Sticktight Burr marigold Devil’s bootjack Pitchfork weed Rayless marigold Monday, June 13, 2011 At least 80 different species in North America are called “goldenrod” (so scientiFc names eliminate confusion) Solidago canadensis Solidago juncea Solidago sempervirens Monday, June 13, 2011 What is a species? (not a trivial problem!) DifFcult to arrive at a standard/uniform deFnition of what a "species" is that applies to all organisms. How to recognize or defne a distinct species? B. The morphological species concept- a species is defned/recognized based on shared structural similarities (Can you envision any problems with this?) Monday, June 13, 2011 Male Female Morphological variation exists among individuals within a species…so where do you draw the line? Might be mistaken as _____________? Monday, June 13, 2011 larval tadpole Aquatic Gills Herbivorous Swimming adult frog Terrestrial Lungs Carnivorous Jumping metamorphosis Another complication: morphology can change drastically during the life cycle of a species ! Might be mistaken as separate species? Monday, June 13, 2011 Cryptic species: 2 species that are morphologically indistinguishable, but genetically very different. California fairy shrimp Tallahassee fairy shrimp Both are called Streptocephalus sealii, but… …cytochrome oxidase I gene = 24% difference in DNA sequence MSH X MSH XII (not) Monday, June 13, 2011 A species is a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring. C. Biological Species Concept (Ernst Mayr, 1942) Monday, June 13, 2011 A species is a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring. Fig. 24.3 C. Biological Species Concept (Ernst Mayr, 1942) Monday, June 13, 2011 A species is a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring. eastern and western meadowlarks Fig. 24.3 C. Biological Species Concept (Ernst Mayr, 1942) Monday, June 13, 2011 A species is a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed and produce viable and fertile offspring....
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2011 Slide Set XII Spr10 - Monday III Modes of Speciation A...

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