Bio II Slide Set II

Bio II Slide Set II - What processes, besides cell...

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Fig. 1-9 Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents ? ? ? What processes, besides cell signalling, cell communication, gene regulation & differential gene expression, control the steps in development? Monday, June 13, 2011
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PROBLEM: Given the generality of the Central Dogma cell give rise to the diversity of cell types in a multicellular organism? Solution: differential gene expression (last time) Next: some Fnal loose ends & then: “DEVELOPMENT” Monday, June 13, 2011
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I. The Genetic Basis of Development A. Cellular processes guiding development 1. cell division 2. cell differentiation 3. morphogenesis B. How cells differentiate 1. genomic equivalence 2. evidence for genomic equivalence a. totipotency and cloning i. in plants ii. in animals b. stem cells i. embryonic ii. adult 3. molecular processes a. determination i. via cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) ii. via induction by cell signaling SLIDE SET II “loose ends” Monday, June 13, 2011
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SLIDE SET II (cont’d.) Animal Development I. General Pattern II. Gametes III. Fertilization IV. Cleavage V. A. Introduction B. Example: gastrulation 1. sea urchin 2. frog 3. chick Monday, June 13, 2011
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Proper embryonic development requires that the correct genes are expressed at the correct time and in the correct location . Fig. 18.18; 7th: 21.13 Monday, June 13, 2011
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A. Cellular processes guiding embryonic development For a single, fertilized egg cell (= ZYGOTE ) to develop into a multicellular embryo (later, adult) requires: zygote multicellular embryo A. Cell division (mitosis) C. morphogenesis B. Cell differentiation - to increase # of cells - to faithfully replicate the entire genome (all the DNA) in daughter cells - involves regulating the expression of genes to make tissue-speci±c proteins - cells become specialized via a sequence of molecular events called determination (e.g., skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells) - setting up a body plan (e.g., anterior-posterior axis) - relies on cell signaling affecting gene regulation movements Monday, June 13, 2011
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Fig. 1-9 Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents ? cell division more cell division, cell morphogenesis (later today) Monday, June 13, 2011
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B. Processes guiding (embryonic) cell differentiation 1. Genomic equivalence : all the different cell types in an organism have identical genomes …but they express different genes 2. Evidence for genomic equivalence a. totipotency : the potential of a cell to differentiate into ANY type of cell because no genes are irreversibly turned off (in stem cells. . Its fate has not been determined) Aka. Capability to turn into any sort of cell
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Bio II Slide Set II - What processes, besides cell...

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