Bio II Slide Set V

Bio II Slide Set V - UNIT II PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIT II: PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE Problem: How are genes and the traits for which they code passed along from parents to offspring? Father & son Twins Mom and offspring Sisters Family Brothers Monday, June 13, 2011 SLIDE SET V OUTLINE The Cell Cycle, Mitosis & Meiosis (cell division) I. Chromosomes A. Somatic cells are diploid B. Germ cells (gametes) are haploid C. n, 2n D. Karyotypes 1. homologous pairs of chromosomes 2. autosomes 3. sex chromosomes II. The Cell Cycle A. Two components: growth & division B. Functions C. Eukaryotes 1. interphase 2. mitotic phase D. Control of the cell cycle E. Cancer F. Telomeres and cell division Monday, June 13, 2011 Slide Set V (cont’d) III. Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction A. Stages of meiosis 1. meiosis I 2. meiosis II B. Differences between meiosis and mitosis 1. segregation of alleles C. Meiosis generates genetic variation among gametes 1. independent assortment of chromosomes 2. crossing over Monday, June 13, 2011 Chromosomes: a quick review Chromosomes are individual packages of chromatin Chromatin = DNA molecules (genetic material) bound to numerous, different proteins (e.g., histones) One chromosome = one DNA molecule (+ bound proteins) comprising hundreds to thousands of genes per chromosome (~25,000 genes in the human genome) Monday, June 13, 2011 I. Chromosome numbers in cells A. Somatic cells (body cell: muscle, nerve, skin, etc.) are diploid (2n) : 1.they contain 2 sets (2n) of chromosomes: 1 set from each parent *Therefore, in somatic cells, CHROMOSOMES EXIST IN PAIRS (1 chromosome/pair came from mother, the other chr’sme from father) B. # of chromosmes in a set = “n” *a “set” of chromosomes (designated “n”) contains one of each kind of chromosome for that species e.g. human skin, muscle, liver cells: 2n=46 chromosomes e.g. a toucan somatic cell: 2n=106 chromosomes Monday, June 13, 2011 Recall: chromosome number is species-specifc :- all the somatic cells oF an organism have the species-specifc diploid (2n) # oF chromosomes Humans - 46 Chimps - 48 Onion - 8 Potato - 48 Fruit fly 4 goldfish - 94 Toucan - 106 Monday, June 13, 2011 Human copyright © 1994 David Adler http://www.pathology.washington.edu/research/cytopages/idiograms/human/ http://www.pathology.washington.edu/galleries/Cytogallery/main.php?file=human%20karyotypes I. D. KARYOTYPE : an orderly way of displaying the # and types of chromosomes in a cell; displays visible (“condensed”) already replicated chr’somes undergoing mitosis *can only see chromosomes if the cell is undergoing mitosis Monday, June 13, 2011 Human copyright © 1994 David Adler http://www.pathology.washington.edu/research/cytopages/idiograms/human/ http://www.pathology.washington.edu/galleries/Cytogallery/main.php?file=human%20karyotypes NOTE: CHROMOSOMES EXIST IN PAIRS ( 2 sets in diploid somatic cells) maternal contribution to chr’some pair #2 paternal contribution to chr’some pair #2 I. D. KARYOTYPE : an orderly way of displaying the # and types of...
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Bio II Slide Set V - UNIT II PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE...

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