10 Chordata - Phylum Chordata Animals with a notochord...

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Unformatted text preview: Phylum Chordata Animals with a notochord Monday, June 13, 2011 Overview of chordates Fish to us (well, some of us) Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Origin of the chordate body plan An ascidian tadpole Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Relating chordates to other deuterostomes Monday, June 13, 2011 Cephalochordata: Amphioxus (Branchiostoma) sp. Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Amphioxus, anterior region showing pharynx & cross section Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Amphioxus head brain gill slit Monday, June 13, 2011 gill arch spinal cord notochord dorsal artery pharyngeal chamber heart Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Stages of Vertebrate Evolution Evolution of spinal column and braincase: Agnathous stage The jawless fishes Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Neural arch centrum Snake vertebrae Neural arch Channel for spinal column Centrum Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Mammals Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Agnathous fishes Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Lobe-finned Fishes Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Slime hag mouths Monday, June 13, 2011 The evolution of jaws from gill arches and fins from metapleural folds: The Fish Stage Monday, June 13, 2011 Shark cranium and jaws: the upper jaw is not fused to the brain case. Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Appendages • from metapleural folds • stiffened with fin rays Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Mammals Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Agnathous fishes Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Lobe-finned Fishes A teleost (bony) fish Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 The road to the tetrapods and the emergence to land: The fleshy fin-base fishes (Choanichthes, Sarcopterygia) Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes Agnathous fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Mammals Modern Lobe-finned Fishes 1939 South Africa Monday, June 13, 2011 Latimeria chalumne, a coelocanth Devonian coelocanths (from fossils) Monday, June 13, 2011 African slender lungfish Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Pelvic Pectoral Sarcopterygian Fish Amphibian Evolution of girdles Mammal-like Reptile Mammal Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Mammals Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Agnathous fishes Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Lobe-finned Fishes Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 The amphibian stage Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Homology of vertebrate limbs Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 True terrestriality: The reptilian stage Monday, June 13, 2011 Cutting the ties with the ancestral pond: Also: efficient lungs waterproof skin reptilian gait Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Mammals Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Agnathous fishes Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Lobe-finned Fishes Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 From reptiles to birds: The price of flight Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Mammals Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Agnathous fishes Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Lobe-finned Fishes Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 From reptiles to mammals: Hair, milk and parental care Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Reptiles Modern Amphibians Birds Mammals Ancestral Reptiles Ancestral Amphibians Teleosts Agnathous fishes Ancestral Lobe-finned fishes cephalochordates Ancestral chordate Monday, June 13, 2011 Modern Lobe-finned Fishes Monday, June 13, 2011 Monotremes, egg-laying mammals Platypus sp. Echidna sp. Monday, June 13, 2011 The Opossum, a marsupial mammal Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Silver jackal, a eutherian mammal Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 Monday, June 13, 2011 ...
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