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history112progressivismlecture - Lecture Progressivism...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture: Progressivism, 1900Lecture: 1920 I. Roots of Progressivism/Paradoxes II. Key Elements of Progressivism III.” Muckraking” IV. Social Legislation V. Election of 1912 Extra Credit Papers and Exams after class. Enjoy the Fall break—no sections this week. Advice: begin, Growing Up Advice: Growing 1 Min Questionnaire today: Section 5 US in 1900: many achievements but many growing problems but Increasing Increasing class tensions, among both workers and farmers—increasing appeal of radical labor unions, Populists, and even Socialists. unions, Conflicts over immigration Increasing violence toward African Americans— rise of lynching, false charges often justified this rise racial violence. racial Increasing power of big business, which many Increasing viewed with concern. Women’s rights issues—especially suffrage New imperial possessions. Progressivism as a response to these and other problems these Another paradox of the period is that many Another progressives supported major reforms for conservative reasons. People like Theodore Roosevelt believed that if the country didn’t make changes, revolution was likely. Common Themes Progress—they Progress—they were optimistic science science efficiency efficiency experts, experts, lobbyists and professional organizations organizations New Conception of Freedom New Woodrow Wilson, 1912: “Freedom today is Woodrow something more than being left alone. Government must be positive, not negative merely.” negative Decline in belief in laissez-faire and Decline “natural laws,” increasing belief that for individuals to flourish gov’t involvement was necessary. was Meaning of Progressivism Meaning The The term was never defined precisely but it was adopted by many politicians and people from both parties. In 1912, a Progressive Party was formed, with Theodore Roosevelt as the presidential candidate. The progressive “recipe” The Critiques of Big Business Critiques “The dull, purblind folly of the very rich men; their greed The and arrogance...and the corruption in business and politics, have tended to produce a very unhealthy condition of excitement and irritation in the popular mind, which shows itself in the great increase in the socialistic propaganda.” Theodore Roosevelt, 1906 propaganda.” “I think we are in a position, after the experience of the think last 20 years, to state two things: in the first place, that a corporation may well be too large to be the most efficient instrument of production and distribution, and, in the second place, whether it has exceeded the point of greatest economic efficiency or not, it may be too large to be tolerated among the people who desire to be free.” to Louis Brandeis, 1911 Need for balance between free markets and government markets TR TR and the Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902. Gov’t for the first time intervened as a neutral arbiter and even came down on the side of the United Mine Workers’ union. union. Gov’t Powerful Enough to lecture and regulate business. Showed a new power of the federal gov’t. gov’t. Another Example of Prog. Reform Another 4 Amendments to the US Constitution 16th—income tax (1913) 17th—direct election of US Senators —direct (1913) (1913) 18th amendment—Prohibition (1919) 19th amendment—women’s suffrage (1920) (1920) Paradoxes of the Progressive Era Paradoxes 1) time of great political leaders and ideas but of 1) lowering voting participation lowering 2) new view of state as instrument for social good 2) but very little done for African American Civil Rights Rights 3) rise of “interest group politics” even as people 3) talked about the public good. talked 4) middle-class reform era 5) concern for the “people” but reliance on experts Decline in Voter Participation Decline Pres. Election Turnout Cont’d Pres. 1876: 81.8% 1880: 79.4% 1884: 77.5% 1888: 79.3% 1892: 74.7% 1896: 79.3% 1900: 73.2% 1904: 65.2% 1908: 65.4% 1912: 58.8% 1916: 61.6% 1920: 49.2% 1924: 48.9% 2008 roughly 64% (highest since 1908! although in1960 was 63%) Exact opposite of Gilded Age--charismatic politicians but lowering voter turnout: T. Roosevelt lowering Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921 Woodrow William Howard Taft, 1909-1913 William Progressivism: A response to major economic/social transformations economic/social Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911: 146 young women die. young Triangle Fire Photograph Triangle “Muckrakers” and the Progressive Muckrakers” Spirit Spirit Jacob Riis: Shining a light on social problems as a photographer/lecturer photographer/lecturer Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives Lives Social Legislation Social Muller v. Oregon 1908 “Brandeis Brief” and the rise of Brandeis sociological Jurisprudence. 113 page “brief” with mostly scientific and 113 medical evidence about the need for maximum hours laws for women. The Suffrage Campaign: 19th The amendment, 1920 amendment, Anti-Suffrage Cartoon Anti-Suffrage Jane Addams: One of many college-educated women entering reform work reform Hull House: Settlement House Hull Election of 1912 High Point of Progressivism Progressivism The Socialist Party got 1 mill. votes The Election of 1912 Electoral Map Election Timeline of Progressive Era Activities Activities ...
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