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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 5: Workers in Industrializing America I. Big issues: solidarity, mobility, democracy
II. What is a worker? Who counts? III. Sources of workingclass diversity
IV. Sources of workingclass unity
V. Collective Action: Strikes, Demands for Leisure
VI. The Rise of Labor Unions: Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, Industrial Workers of the World Please sit according to the Seating Chart.
Discussion Sections today, Th and Fr.
Paper # 3 (based on the “Thought Questions” on Study Guide 3 posted on blackboard under “Assignments”) due at the beginning of section. Upcoming: First “formal paper” next week and Exam the following week. Extra Credit Opportunity: Lecture: “Civil Rights on Film,” on Thursday, September 10 at 3:30 pm in Davis 209. If you attend and write a short response paper (12 pages) you will be eligible for Extra Credit (of 14 points). Other Announcements
► ► ►
► Lecture 14 outlines are posted under “Course Documents” on the combined blackboard site, HIST 112, Sections 001
009. Today’s lecture will be posted by Friday.
Remember to submit your paper to “Safe Assign.” The link is always below the Study Guide. So this week the link for submission is directly below Study Guide # 3 under the “Assignments” link. Please enter blackboard using Internet Explorer or Google Chrome. I apologize for the problems that some of you continue to have. Please note that the syllabus is posted on Blackboard under “Course Information.”
One minute Questionnaire: Section 3. Some of you wanted to know more about how political “machines” operated. This week’s Document 195 provides a good example. Important Paper Comment
Important Paper Comment
► Safe assign shows that some of you are directly drawing from sources other than the Documents in the Reader. We’d prefer that you stick to analysis of the documents. If you wish to quote another source, you do need to provide a citation for it. ► Also, Safe Assign shows if parts of your paper overlap with another student in our class, so please be sure that your work is your own. Big Questions for This Week’s Big Questions for This Week’s Lecture and Readings
► Social Mobility: can someone born into the workingclass rise into the middle or even upper class? ► Solidarity: do working people owe each other support? ► How free is free?: Slavery is illegal but some forms of labor seem to have elements of unfreedom? ► How does the reality of class affect American ideals? What is class? Why did it matter?
What is class? Why did it matter?
► ► Does the United States have distinct classes? 19th century big shift from the feeling that most Americans were “producers” to the view that the country was divided into distinct classes with opposing interests.
In the late 19th century, there was an increasing sense of division between rich and poor. A question people asked: what is the solution to the “labor problem”? Does the government have a role in solving this problem? Many forms of labor did not seem entirely “free”: contract labor (Document 194); Domestic Servants; “wage slavery” Who is a Worker?
Who is a Worker?
► What is the Working Class? Women WageEarners
Women WageEarners Agricultural Workers
Agricultural Workers Workingclass diversity in the Gilded Workingclass diversity in the Gilded Age
► new technologies created new jobs
► new management techniques ► immigration and inmigration ► skilled workers forced into wage earning (by 1870, 70% of workers are employees)
► workingclass racism, ethnocentrism, and gender bias all exacerbated divisions New Immigrants
New Immigrants The AntiChinese Movement in CA
The AntiChinese Movement in CA In 1885, in Wyoming, In 1885, in Wyoming, European immigrant mine workers rioted against Chinese workers (who were paid less than white workers and who had historically been recruited as strikebreakers), killing 28 Chinese miners and destroying 75 of their homes. Sources of Unity
Sources of Unity
concern about the fate of “free labor” and fear of “wage slavery”
workers control of productionopposition to “scientific management”
Workers often often resorted to collective action
37,000 strikes involving 7 mill. between 1881 and 1905
Strike of 1877–significance (national unity)
Collective action included “weapons of the weak”: boycotts, quitting, work slowdowns, sabotage
shock of industrialization
workingclass culture of unity and solidarity (i.e. “treating” at the saloon) A boycott poster
A boycott poster National Strikes
National Strikes 1894 Pullman Strike
1894 Pullman Strike Seattle “General Strike” of 1919
Seattle “General Strike” of 1919 1916 Labor Day Parade
1916 Labor Day Parade First Labor Day Parade1886
First Labor Day Parade1886 Demands for Leisure
Demands for Leisure
► Popularity of the “EightHour Movement” Workers demanded “8 hours for work, 8 hours for rest, and 8 hours for what we will” Cheap Amusements: Coney Island, Cheap Amusements: Coney Island, 1903 Luna Park, Coney Island, 1903
Luna Park, Coney Island, 1903 The Rise of Labor Unions
The Rise of Labor Unions
► Knights of Labor, 18691890s ► 1st national union: 800,000 Open ended membership
► Terence Powderly
Mayor of Scranton, PA American Federation of Labor, 1886
American Federation of Labor, 1886
present (now AFLCIO)
► Samuel Gompers
► cigarmaker ► Skilled workers ► “bread and butter unionism” Industrial Workers of the World, Industrial Workers of the World, 1905WWI
► Big Bill Haywood
► Miner ► Small but militant Believed that workers
And employers had
“nothing in common” Haymarket Riot (Chicago 1886) and Haymarket Riot (Chicago 1886) and the Fear of WorkingClass Revolution Haymarket: Seemed to suggest that the “labor Haymarket: Seemed to suggest that the “labor problem” might turn violent and even Revolutionary The Haymarket “Martyrs”
The Haymarket “Martyrs” ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course HIST 112 taught by Professor Littlefield during the Fall '08 term at South Carolina.
- Fall '08