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history112lecture6nativeamericans - Lecture 6 The Fate of...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 6: The Fate of Native Americans Lecture I. General Characteristics of Native Americans I. General II. The Plains Indians III. Contradictions of US Policy a. Indian Removal b. Assimilation: The Dawes Act c. Return to Tribal Authority Formal Paper due in section, based on the Thought Formal Questions in Study Guide # 4 and on Our Hearts Fell to the Ground, pp. 1-50, 121-210. to Exam Next week. Bring Blue Books, if you have not Exam done so. done I will collect the Extra Credit Assignment. will Things to think about for discussion sections this week. What does American history look like from a What Native American perspective? How do the lives of Native Americans and How Immigrants (whom we’ll be discussing on Wednesday) compare? How did Native Americans respond to the How developments we will discuss today? Calloway says we should focus not only on defeat but also “resilience of the human spirit” among Native Americans (153). How many of you have Native American How ancestry? General Characteristics of the Native American Population Native Diversity of groups Tribes(Nation)/bands Tribes(Nation)/bands Language family (1,000-2,000 languages but Language only 12-17 language families) only Geographic Region Population trends 1600: 1 million 1900: 230,000 1900: 2000: 2.5 million Tribe/Band Divisions Tribe/Band THE SIOUX NATION included: LAKOTA – or Teton: Prairie Dwellers – with Six Bands: Oglala Oglala Sicangu Sicangu Hunkpapa Hunkpapa Miniconjous Sihasapa – Itazipacola Itazipacola THE DAKOTA OR SANTEE - with Four Bands: Mdeakantonwon Wahpeton Wahpekute Sisseton Sisseton THE NAKOTA OR YANKTON with Three Bands: Yankton Upper Yankton Lower Yankton Tribes in 1600 Tribes Native American Language Families Families Geographic diversity/different environments produced different cultures produced Native American Culture Regions Native Plains Indians: Key to US policy in the Gilded Age. “Earth was beautiful” until the “hairy man from the east” came (p. 1). 1). Characteristics of Plains Indians Characteristics Nomadic hunters More male dominance than in most More Eastern or Western tribes Eastern Buffalo was central to spiritual and Buffalo economic life economic About 250,000 in 1865 Cheyenne Sun Dance Ceremony Cheyenne Endurance of pain/celebration of life Endurance The “Tradition” of Buffalo Hunting The Horses only arrived with Spanish Horses conquistadors conquistadors Plains Indian culture of buffalo hunting did Plains not emerge until the mid 1700s. not The Shoshone traded with the Utes and Comanche for their first he horses in the early seventeen hundreds. Not long after the Nez Perce had horses, and by 1740, the Crow and Blackfeet had traded for horses. traded Destruction of the Buffalo Destruction Our Hearts Fell to the Ground, Ch. 9 “The whole country there smelled of rotten The meat.” (Pretty Shield, p. 131) meat.” “The Indians never were such wasteful, The wanton killers of this noble game animal.” (Luther Standing Bear, p. 125) (Luther Important role of the Railroads Contradictions of US Indian Policy Contradictions Indian Removal Expansion of Railroads Military Conflict Military Sioux Wars (1860s and 1870s) Red River War (1874-75) George Custer Little Big Horn, 1876 Crazy Horse Artistic Rendition of Little Big Horn Artistic Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce 1876-77, 1,000 mile retreat with 400 1876-77, people. Ultimately placed in prison at Ft. Ultimately Leavenworth, Kansas Leavenworth, Wounded Knee, 1890: Last major military battle military Assimilating the Indian Assimilating Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor Helen (1881) (1881) Dawes Act, 1887: encouraged the breakup of Dawes reservations into individual 160 acre farms and encouraged Indians to take American citizenship encouraged Richard Pratt : “Kill the Indian, Save the Man” (p. Richard 15). Indians Schools used the following techniques: Indians New names, school uniforms, haircuts, rejection of Native American spiritual practices. Indian Territory, 1885 Indian Indian Territory, 1891 Indian The Dawes Act of 1887 and military defeat had a major effect on the Sioux Indian tribe. The United States government had gained control of their ancestral lands. Hope came . for the Sioux Indian tribe in the form of an Indian messiah, a holy man who called himself Wovoka (p. 198) Wovoka Return to Tribal Authority Return Indian Reorganization Act, 1934 Post New Deal Reservation System Post ...
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