history112lecture8relgion - The Transformation of American...

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Unformatted text preview: The Transformation of American Religion Religion I. “The Three Great Families of Faith” “The II. Protestantism Evangelical Triumph Challenges: Social Gospel and Fundamentalism The Scopes Trial, 1925 The III. Catholicism III. No Discussion Sections this week! Exam on Wednesday: 25 multiple choice; 5 short (1-3 sentence) Exam answer, out of 6. Blue books! answer, If you’ll need extra time or special arrangements please see me or If your TA immediately after class today. We’ll do our best to hand back papers and exams next week in discussion section. discussion No 1-minute questionnaires today: so please ask questions if you No have them. Last time: question about immigration from non-European countries. Last Next Monday: Optional class. Video Showing. Crucible of Empire: Next The Spanish American War. If you come and write a reaction paper, The If you can receive extra credit. Office Hours: 1-2 today. Office American Paradox American Deeply worldly and materialistic but also Deeply deeply religious. More religious than any other Western, industrialized country. other 2008 survey, for example, found that 71% 2008 of Americans are absolutely certain about the existence of God. About 40% attend Church weekly. About Close to 60% pray daily. The “Three Great Families of Faith” The Protestantism, Catholicism, and Judaism 1955 book by Will Herberg: Protestant, 1955 Catholic, and Jew This was a relatively recent construct in post-WWII America. Not really accurate for the period before or after after Religious Identity Religious 1776 1776 1870 1924 1999 Protestantism 84% 85% 75% 55% Catholicism 1% 10% 17% 27% Judaism Judaism .1% .5% 3.5% 2% None/Other 15% 5% 5% 13% 2008 survey of religious identity 2008 Chart from NY Times NY Catholics largest single religious group; Southern Baptists are the second largest and the biggest Protestant sect. Protestant Mapping Religious Adherence Mapping Areas of Evangelical strength (darker colors) (darker Protestantism Protestantism The Rise of Evangelicalism A religious style rather than a denomination Strongly emotional form of faith Relied for growth upon “revival meetings”: Relied powerful group experiences powerful Moral engagement in the world: temperance, Moral anti-slavery, Sabbatarionism anti-slavery, Evangelical Triumph Evangelical Evangelicals went from a minority within Evangelicals Protestantism to a majority in the years from 1870-1900. But as this happened, many evangelicals detected a change in the character of the movement. Developments in Protestantism Developments Evangelicalism for many became known Evangelicalism as “liberal Protestantism,” which were characterized by the “mainline” churches. characterized Much more optimistic and less active than Much the original evangelicals from whom they descended. Evangelical Triumph and Schism Evangelical Evangelical Protestantism Fundamentalism Liberal Protestantism Became “Mainline Churches” Social Gospel Challenges: From 2 directions Challenges: Social Gospel: asked the question, “What Social Would Jesus Do?” Fundamentalism: focused on personal, rather than social, sin. rather Fundamentalism Fundamentalism Prohibition, 1919 Five principles a) divine accuracy of the Scripture b) virgin birth c) deity of Christ d) second coming of Christ e) divine atonement for the sins of e) mankind mankind Billy Sunday: A leading fundamentalist fundamentalist Prohibition Prohibition The Scopes Trial, 1925: Clarence Darrow (l) and William Jennings Bryan Bryan Bryan during the trial Bryan John Scopes: Represented by the American Civil Liberties Union American Growth of Conservative Protestantism after WWII Protestantism Catholicism Catholicism An Immigrant Church, which tended to be An urban and working class as well. urban Anti-Catholicism was a powerful social Anti-Catholicism force through the 1920s. Many Catholics criticized the public schools for their Protestant biases. schools ...
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