History112lecture7immigration

History112lecture7immigration - Immigration, 1870’s-1924...

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Unformatted text preview: Immigration, 1870’s-1924 Immigration, I. Huge #’s; from new places: Shift to Southern I. and Eastern Europe and II. Why and How They Came? “Chain Migration” III. “Nativism” and Immigration Restriction Important laws of 1882, Section 4 and 1924 1921, 1 minute questionnaire: Exam will have 2 parts: Multiple Choice and several questions that Exam will require a response of one to three sentences each. will Bring your blue books! Formal paper due in discussion sections this week. I’m still taking extra credit papers. I’m Immigration record for my Grandfather, Max Glickman (b. 1896), who came to the US (from Russia) in November 1925 Russia) The Aquitania, the boat my grandfather came on from Cherbourg, France. Immigration Wave Immigration 26 26 mill. immigrants from 1870-1920: as a % of population this was the largest immigration wave in US history. immigration Shift from NW to S. and E. Europe more than 90% settled in the N, MW, or W In late 19th c., many cities became overwhelmingly immigrant. Examples of the Scale of Immigration Immigration In In 1890, NYC’s Italian population was larger than Naples, its German population as big as Hamburg, and its Irish population twice as large as Dublin. population Chicago, NY, Boston, Cleveland, Detroit: 75 % immigrants and their children 75 Immigration per 1,000 US residents since 1820 since Shift to S and E Europe Shift Immigration by Decade, 1880-1930 Immigration Ellis Island, NY: Point of Entry for many immigrants, 1892-1924 many Ellis Island Ellis Alfred Stieglitz, “The Steerage,” 1907 1907 Assimilation v. Pluralism: Melting Pot v. Salad Bowl Pot Big difference between immigrants and Native Americans and Immigrants Immigrants came willingly and, while many of them wanted to retain their culture, they were also eager to become “American.” Who Came and Why? Who a. international capitalism b. high wages c. family networks-chain migration c. Myth of the lone immigrant: 92% of immigrants coming to Ellis Island said they were joining friends/family were Immigrants tended to come from particular regions of a country particular Most Most Italian immigrants came from Sicily, for example. Example of Francesco Barone, a saloon Example owner in Buffalo. Example of Chain Migration Example Return Migration Return 1908-1914: 1908-1914: 6.8 million came; 2 million left to return to their homeland. to Nativism Nativism Americanization/Assimilation Immigrants Immigrants and “race”: wipespread feeling that immigrants from S and E. Europe were not “white” “white” Social Darwinism: Madison Grant’s The Passing Social of the Great Race (1916) of 1887 American Protective Association 1887 (2,500,000 members and 20 sympathizers in Congress) 1894 Immigration Restriction League (founded by elite New Englanders) elite Immigration Restriction Laws Immigration 1882, Chinese Exclusion Act Barred the entry of any Chinese for 10 years (renewed Barred several times; rescinded in 1943). b. 1921, Immigration Restriction Act b. quota of 350,000 immigrants/year based on 3% of quota people in country in 1910. people c. 1924, National Origins Act (Johnson-Reed) quota of 150,000 immigrants/year (almost exclusively quota from England, and N. Europe) 2% backdated to 1890 from d. 1965, Immigration and Nationality Act (abolished quotas) a. Chinese Exclusion: Big West Coast Issue Issue Immigration Reduction Immigration Law of 1924 placed severe limits on immigrants from many countries on Some Some examples (per year): Great Britain: 65,000 Russia: 2,754 Greece: 307 Italy: 5,000 China/Japan: 100 (special circumstances) Change in Countries of Origin, post 1965 1965 Steep Decline following 1924 law Steep Post-1965 Immigration Revolution Post-1965 Demographic Changes post 1965 Demographic Between 1980 and 1997, the Hispanic population grew Between 93 percent--from 14.6 million to 28.2 million. (The total U.S. population grew 17 percent, from 226.5 million to 265.8 million. It is now over 300 million.) By the year 2050, the Census Bureau estimates, Hispanics will constitute 24.5 percent of the U.S. population, up from today's 10 percent. Meanwhile, the percentage of Asiantoday's Americans will grow from 3.3 percent to 8.2 percent, and Americans the percentage of African-Americans will rise only slightly, from 12 percent to 13.6 percent. Midway through the next century, only 53 percent of the U.S. population will be non-Hispanic white, down from 74 percent today. Projected Population by “Race” Projected ...
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