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hist112bushobama - Final Lecture Bush Clinton Bush Final...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Lecture: Bush, Clinton, Bush, Final Obama: From the Cold War to the War on Terror War Discussion sections this week. Final Exam study guide is posted on blackboard. (Please note that on Monday I summarized one question incorrectly. It asks you to compare and contrast the 1930s (not the 1950s) and 1960s. Final Exam Guide (posted on blackboard on Final the “Course Information” link) the Parts I and II focus only on material since Exam II. (WWII to the present) Part I. 40 Points. Suggested time: 30 minutes 20 Multiple Choice Questions (2 points each) Part II. 30 Points. Suggested time: 30 minutes Identification. You will be asked to identify six names or terms (out of seven) in a paragraph of about four sentences for each term. Be sure to provide dates, specific information, and historical significance wherever possible. They will be worth five points each. Part III. 30 Points The essay question will be one of the five below. Since we are providing you with the questions in advance, we expect well­written, well­documented, clear answers. The exam will be closed book; no notes allowed. Essay topics: 1. Civil Rights movement 2. Compare and contrast the lives of Russell Baker and Melba Patillo Beals 3. Cold War 4. Compare and contrast the 1930s and the 1960s. 5. Compare and contrast the Spanish American War and the Vietnam War. George H. W. Bush Presided over the end of the Cold War Persian Gulf War of 1991 Successful foreign policy achievement were weighed down by a weakening economy. Early in his term, Bush faced the problem of what to do with leftover deficits spawned by the Reagan years. At $220 billion in 1990, the deficit had grown to three times its size since 1980. Fall of Berlin Wall (Nov 1989): symbolic of the death of the Fall “Iron Curtain.” With the breakup of the USSR in 1991 the Cold War was over. Cold President Bush spoke of a “peace dividend” President now that the Cold War was over. Sense of new opportunities. new • In fact, military spending was reduced between 1989 and 1993 and remained flat between 1993 and 1999. Election of 1992 Cyclical theory of politics: After 12 years of George H. W. Bush as VP and President, Americans were ready for a change. Bill Clinton (b. 1946), the Democratic candidate, was the first baby boomer and seemed to represent a new, youthful direction. Bill and Hillary Clinton, Al and Tipper Gore. Bill The youthful Democratic ticket, 1992 The Election of 1992: Clinton (D) wins with 43% of vote. Strong Election vote for Ross Perot, an independent, who appealed to people’s concerns about the drifting economy. Economic Growth under Bill Clinton Bill Clinton’s Presidency: Accepted Bill many of Reagan’s messages. many Acknowledged that “the era of big government is over.” Supported the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, 1996 (Welfare reform) 1998—first budget surplus since 1969. Despite this, his administration marked a new and vociferous partisanship, in which Republicans and Democrats were frequently at loggerheads. Partisan bumper stickers Clinton: nearly impeached in 1998: came Clinton: closest to impeachment since Andrew Johnson in 1868. Johnson Clinton/Lewinsky scandal: affair w/ a White House intern Senate impeachment vote: 45­55 perjury 50­50 obstruction of justice New media and 24 hr news cycle and internet: New new developments in the Clinton presidency new Election of 2000 George W. Bush (R) v. Al Gore (D). Both sons of prominent politicians. Both seen as political moderates. Not seen as a very consequential election during the campaign. After the disputed election, however, things changed. Closest Election since 1876. (Like that election the Closest results were not determined for several weeks.) Supporters of both sides lobbied to ensure the Florida Supporters recount would go their way. recount Sept 11, 2001 attacks organized by Al Sept Qaeda in NYC and Washington DC Qaeda President Bush at “ground zero”: President brief moment of national unification brief The Cold War Analogue President Bush to Congress (9/20/01): “We will direct every resource at our command—every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, every financial influence, and every necessary weapon of war—to the disruption and defeat of the global terrorist network” The War on Terror: Bush promotes The doctrine of “pre-emption” NSC Strategy (Doc 31-3) The enemy is terrorists with “global reach” Need for pre­emption Makes reference to the Cold War (pp. 330­331) New post­Cold War danger: “rogue states” “We must be prepared to stop rogue states and their terrorist clients before they are able to threaten or use weapons of mass destruction” War against Taliban in Afghanistan War began Oct 7th, 2001 began The initial attack removed the Taliban from power. But they have not been defeated and the war continues. (Indeed, last night President Obama promised a major increase of 30,000 American troops.) War against Iraq begins 2003 Election of Barack Obama, 2008 Historic Election: first African American president. First president born post­1960. Benefitted from weakening economy and frustration with the lengthy war in Iraq. At the end of the course, where do At we stand? Renewal of an intensely partisan era (as in the Gilded Age but more ideological and less party­centered). Post­1898 intense interaction with the rest of the world, which took on a new (and permanent) dimension during the Cold War and the current War on Terror. Continuing debates about American identity, especially because of the changing ethnic makeup of the nation. Key question for the future: will America remain the superpower that it’s been at least since WWII? Continuing Discussions The relationship between the government and personal freedom. Government as regulator, as spender, as guarantor of security. The power of the president vs. Congress. ...
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