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hist112coldwar - The Cold War I Aftermath of WWII US rich...

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Unformatted text preview: The Cold War I Aftermath of WWII US rich but insecure ­­the division of Europe II. Truman and the Cold War III. Strategies of Containment IV. The Cold War Beyond Europe Discussion Sections this week. Study Guide # 9. Essay Due One Minute Questionnaire: Section 2 What made the Cold War new, different, and scary? (See Reader Ch. 26 for examples) Expectation of a permanent condition of war. Unavoidable conflict with the Soviet Union because of a clash of irreconcilable ideologies Global playing field: every country had to choose between the “free” world or the communist world. Fear of domestic subversion: danger might come not from abroad but from communist sympathizers at home. (Doc 26­2: George Kennan) Need to fight wars all over the globe because of the fear of the “domino theory.” Everything interpreted through a Cold War lens, including domestic politics. The Global Cold War Aftermath of WWII: Devastated landscape all over Europe and Asia US, by contrast, emerged from the war wealthy and powerful US owned or controlled 50% of the world’s oil reserves. Produced 8 times as many autos as Germany, England and France combined. 1950: US produced 7 million cars; USSR produced 65,000 cars. US produced 40% of the world’s goods and services Truman: “We are the giant of the economic world.” US comes out of the war rich, powerful, yet insecure Even before the war ended, the US was concerned about Soviet motives. “Atomic Diplomacy” Levittown, NY—one of the first postwar suburbs Enemies, Quickly become Allies and visa versa US builds alliances with Germany, Japan Quickly enters into a “Cold War” with its wartime ally, the Soviet Union “Spheres of Influence”: Yalta, Feb 1945 The “Iron Curtain” in Europe Europe divided into Soviet and American Spheres Fear of Communism Not only abroad but also fear of communist subversion at home. Joseph McCarthy and “McCarthyism” Guilt by Association Cold War Culture: Air Raid Drills, Preparation for Attacks Air Raid Drills in Schools Truman and the Cold War National Security Act, 1947 National Security Act Created a Department of Defense (formerly Department of War) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) National Security Council (NSC) Strategies of Containment Various ways of containing the Soviet and Communist Threat around the World Truman Doctrine: March, 1947 Emphasis on Civil Wars in Greece and Turkey: Truman requested 400 million in aid Marshall Plan, 1947: $16 billion Framed as part of Cold War Marshall Aid North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NAT0), 1949 National Security Council: NSC­68, 1950 (Document: 26­3) NSC­68 concluded that the only plausible way to deter the Soviet Union was for President Harry Truman to support a massive build­up of both conventional and nuclear arms. More specifically, such a program should seek to protect the United States and its allies from Soviet land and air attacks, maintain lines of communications, and enhance the technical superiority of the United States through "an accelerated exploitation of [its] scientific potential." In order to fund the substantial increase in military spending this conclusion demanded, the report suggested that the Government increase taxes and reduce other expenditures. The Cold War Moves Beyond Europe China goes “red”: 1949 Korean War CIA activity in the “third world”: Coup in Guatemala, 1954 and Iran in 1953. Removing Democratically elected govts because they are seen as potentially aligning w/ the Soviets Vietnam: US takes over from the French in fighting communism ...
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