hist112civilrights - The Civil Rights Movement, The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Civil Rights Movement, The 1954-1968 1954-1968 Not inevitable: segregation was deeply rooted Youth of participants Cold War context Key Civil Rights movement events Formal Essay # 2 (on Warriors Don’t Cry due in discussion section this week. 1 Min Questionnaire: Section 3 Apologies for my spelling error on the study guide: her name is Melba Pattillo Beals Key Point: Civil Rights Movement Key was not inevitable was The result of concerted activity not only by well­known leaders and politicians but by countless ordinary people, like Fannie Lou Hamer of Mississsippi. Jim Crow’s Powerful Grip: Beals p. 7-”all of the adults Jim around me were living in constant fear and apprehension.” around Segregation: a deep-rooted institution. (Think of examples Segregation: from Melba Patillo Beals’ life, i.e. medicine, dealing with merchants, “brigade of attacking mothers” (p. 77) merchants, Birmingham, 1963: A Civil Rights Birmingham, demonstrator is attacked by a police dog demonstrator Impact of WWII and Cold War Impact Desegregation of Armed Forces: Truman’s Desegregation justification was the Cold War justification Youth of many Civil Rights participants: Jean Youth Thompson, a “freedom rider” Thompson, The “Little Rock Nine”: The Woolworth’s Sit-In Greensboro, 1960—led by 4 college freshmen. Ezell Woolworth’s A. Blair, Jr. , Franklin E. McCain, Joseph A. McNeil, and David L. Richmond leave the Woolworth store after the first sit-in on February 1, 1960. The sit-in movement: led by 4 The college freshmen at NC A & T college Importance of the Media: the first social Importance movement of the television age movement Images brought home to people’s Images living rooms (Birmingham, 1963) living Prelude to Brown v. Board of Prelude Education Education For many years, the NAACP built a meticulous legal case against Plessy v. Ferguson by showing that separate could not be equal. Missouri v. Gaines (1938): challenged pubic all­white grad programs Smith v. Allwright, (1940) a voting rights case in which the Supreme Court required Texas to allow African Americans to vote in primary elections, formerly restricted to whites. Sweatt v. Painter (1950): challenged segregation at U of Texas Law School NAACP Legal Defense Fund: NAACP Charles Harrison Houston Charles Thurgood Marshall Brown v. Board (1954) Built on five cases, including SC’s, Briggs v. Elliott in Clarendon County. Supreme Court said desegregation should be implemented “with all deliberate speed.” A very ambiguous statement: the result was that desegregation proceeded very slowly. A decade later most African Americans continued to attend segregated schools. Little Rock, 1957 Gov. Orval Faubus Beginnings of “massive resistance” Montgomery Bus Boycott, 19551956: Rosa Parks E.D. Nixon (NAACP President and Pullman E.D. Sleeping Car Porters’ Union Member) and Rosa Parks (a secty of the local NAACP) Parks Emergence of Rev. Martin Luther Emergence King, Jr. King, Sit-in Movement Rise of Student Non­Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) March on Washington, 1963: King’s March “I have a dream” speech “I National Response Civil Rights Act, 1964 Voting Rights Act, 1965 ...
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