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Unformatted text preview: Rendez-Vous With Destiny?: FDR and the
Exam on Wednesday (1 essays; 25 mult. choice). Essay questions are
posted on blackboard.
No discussion sections this week.
NB: Formal Paper # 2 (on Melba Beals’ Warriors Don’t Cry due in a few weeks
No 1-min questionnaire today, so please ask questions.
Last time: what effect did the Depression have on the World? A story we’ll pick
up after the examination when we look at WWII. The New Deal was a lot more than Roosevelt but
he embodied the era, especially the confidence he
seemed to project (takes office Mar 4, 1933)
seemed FDR: an aggressive pragmatist, an
improviser, not an ideologue
Goals: Saving Capitalism Regulating Business Providing Security The 3 R’s: Relief (stop the pain), Recovery
(get better), and Reform (do things
differently). Ending Prohibition: Dec 5, 1933
Ending The “Hundred Days”: 15 major bills
signed into law
signed Roosevelt’s Alphabet Soup of
Agencies and Programs
Agencies FDR and the New Deal Agencies
FDR Fireside Chats: “Together we cannot
fail. ” 1st one: March 12, 1933.
I want to talk for a few minutes with the
people of the United States about banking -to talk with the comparatively few who
understand the mechanics of banking, but
more particularly with the overwhelming
majority of you who use banks for the
making of deposits and the drawing of
checks. 1 step: saving the Banks
st Bank “holiday”—Mar 5th; Emergency Banking Act, passed on Mar 9, 1933.
Closed insolvent banks and reopened solvent ones.
Closed FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FDIC: Federal Walter Lippman: ”In one week, the nation, which had lost confidence in
everything and everybody, has regained confidence in the gov’t and itself.” National Industrial Recovery Act
(NIRA) Recognized that big business was here to
Recognized stay. Allowed monopolies and cartels to
exist; asked businesses to work together
to set minimum wages and prices. Clause 7(a): recognized right of workers to
bargain collectively: “employees shall
have the right to organize and bargain
collectively through representatives of
their own choosing”
their Created the National Recovery
Administration Voluntary Compliance
Voluntary NRA found unconstitutional in 1935
NRA The U.S. Supreme Court held Title I of the
Act unconstitutional on May 27, 1935, in
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States.
Schechter Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
Agricultural Paid farmers not to grow food in order to raise
Paid agricultural prices.
Very controversial because so many Americans
10 million acres of cotton were plowed under, 6
million baby pigs killed.”
Sec of Ag, Henry Wallace admitted that the US
had “the largest wheat surplus and the longest
breadlines in its history”
By 1936, farm income had risen by 50%.
By Works Progress Administration
(WPA): created public sector jobs
in construction and the arts
in Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC): hired
unemployed young men to do forestry and
conservation Critics of the New Deal
Critics Although Roosevelt was popular,
unemployment remained high (above
15%) and many critics blamed FDR and
his New Deal. Huey Long (Louisiana)
Huey Father Charles Coughlin (The
“radio Francis Townsend
Francis Roosevelt’s Response: The
`Second New Deal’: 1935
`Second Social Security Act, 1935
Social Wagner Act and the Rise of Organized
Labor: Created the National Labor Relations
Board Huge Gains in Organized Labor, especially the creation of
the CIO in 1935: from 3 to 10 million unionized workers
between 1930 and 1940
between Election of 1936: Creation of the
“New Deal Coalition”
“New New Deal Coalition
New African Americans, working-class, ethnic
whites (including the majority of Catholics
and Jews), the solid South”
and Political Realignment, which lasted
beyond the New Deal
beyond New Deal losing momentum by
1937 The “court packing scheme” The “Roosevelt recession,” 1937-1938 Only the mobilization for WWII
ended the Great Depression
ended Despite the successes of the New Deal,
only war-time production got the country
fully out of the Great Depression.
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course HIST 112 taught by Professor Littlefield during the Spring '08 term at South Carolina.
- Spring '08
- New Deal