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Unformatted text preview: EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (2007) M. van de Panne, E. Saund (Editors) Kirchhoff’s Pen: A Pen-based Circuit Analysis Tutor Ruwanee de Silva, 1 David Tyler Bischel, 1 WeeSan Lee, 2 Eric J. Peterson, 1 Robert C. Calfee, 3 and Thomas F. Stahovich 1 1 Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California, Riverside 2 Computer Science Department, University of California, Riverside 3 Graduate School of Education, University of California, Riverside Abstract Kirchhoff’s Pen is a pen-based tutoring system that teaches students to apply Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL) and current law (KCL). To use the system, the student sketches a circuit schematic and annotates it to indicate component labels, mesh currents, and nodal voltages. The student then selects either mesh (KVL) or nodal (KCL) analysis, and writes the appropriate equations. The system interprets the equations, compares them to the correct equations (which are automatically derived from the circuit), and provides tutorial feedback about errors. Unlike traditional tutoring systems that work from input provided with a keyboard and mouse, our system works from ambiguous, hand-drawn input. The goal of our work is to create computational techniques to enable natural, pen-based tutoring systems that scaffold students in solving problems in the same way they would ordinarily solve them with paper and pencil. Kirchhoff’s Pen is an important first step toward this goal. 1. Introduction Pen-based interaction is becoming increasingly important, due in part to the ready availability of pen-based hardware. Despite its potential, pen-based technology has not yet been widely applied to education. Perhaps the best current exam- ple of pen-based, educational technology is Classroom Pre- senter [ AMS05 ], a classroom interaction system that allows students and instructors to communicate wirelessly in lecture environments using tablet computers. However, this system does not interpret what is written, nor is it intended to pro- vide any instructional feedback. Our work is focused on the use of pen-based technology for creating intelligent tutoring systems. In particular, our goal is to create computational techniques to enable natural, pen-based tutoring systems that scaffold students in solv- ing problems in the same way they would ordinarily solve them with paper and pencil. This goal is consistent with re- cent research comparing student performance across differ- ent user interfaces showing that “as the interfaces departed more from familiar work practice..., students would experi- ence greater cognitive load such that performance would de- teriorate in speed, attentional focus, meta-cognitive control, correctness of problem solutions, and memory” [ OAC06 ]....
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- Spring '09