PenTopFeedback - Pen-top Feedback for Paper-based...

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1 Pen-top Feedback for Paper-based Interfaces Chunyuan Liao, François Guimbretière Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Department of Computer Science University of Maryland College Park, MD 20770,USA Tel: 1-301-405-2715 {liaomay, francois}@cs.umd.edu Corinna E. Loeckenhoff National Institute on Aging Box #03, Gerontology Research Center 5600 Nathan Shock Drive Baltimore, MD 21224, USA Tel: 1-410-558-8196 {LoeckenhoffC}@grc.nia.nih.gov ABSTRACT Current paper-based interfaces such as PapierCraft, provide very little feedback and this limits the scope of possible interactions. So far, there has been little systematic explora- tion of the structure, constraints, and contingencies of feed- back-mechanisms in paper-based interaction systems for paper-only environments. We identify three levels of feed- back: discovery feedback (e.g., to aid with menu learning), status-indication feedback (e.g., for error detection), and task feedback (e.g., to aid in a search task). Using three modalities (visual, tactile, and auditory) which can be eas- ily implemented on a pen-sized computer, we introduce a conceptual matrix to guide systematic research on pen-top feedback for paper-based interfaces. Using this matrix, we implemented a multimodal pen prototype demonstrating the potential of our approach. We conducted an experiment that confirmed the efficacy of our design in helping users discover a new interface and identify and correct their er- rors. ACM Classification: H5.2 [Information interfaces and presentation]: User Interfaces. - Graphical user interfaces. General terms: Design, Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords: Paper-based interfaces, Pen interfaces, multi- modal, feedback. INTRODUCTION The availability of new digital pens capable of capturing marks made on paper documents has created a renewed interest in paper-based interfaces such as the Xax [12] and PaperPDA [9]. The Anoto system [1], for example, com- bines a unique pattern printed on each page with a digital pen to capture strokes made on paper. Not only do digital pens alleviate the need for scanning annotated paper docu- ments, they also provide accurate timing information for each stroke. This feature makes it possible to implement paper-based command systems. The Anoto command sys- tem is based on small icons printed on paper (pidgets), but other approaches are also possible. PapierCraft [17], for example, proposed a command system which uses pen ges- tures on paper to support active reading. However, neither system offers any feedback beyond the ink left on paper. This severely limits the scope of features that can be of- fered. While it would be possible to rely on nearby com- puters [19, 30] to provide the necessary feedback, this ap- proach constrains the flexibility of paper usage. The Fly “pen-top” computer [15] introduced by Leap Frog offers an interesting compromise to this dilemma. Using its own version of the Anoto technology, the Fly pen system combines a voice interface, a set of printed templates, and the option to draw one's own interfaces, to offer a wide variety of games and educational activities. While the Fly
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