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Unformatted text preview: 20 November/December 2008 Published by the IEEE Computer Society 0272-1716/08/$25.00 © 2008 IEEE Survey 3D User Interfaces: New Directions and Perspectives Doug A. Bowman ■ Virginia Tech Sabine Coquillart ■ INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes—LIG Bernd Froehlich ■ Bauhaus-Universität Weimar Michitaka Hirose ■ University of Tokyo Yoshifumi Kitamura and Kiyoshi Kiyokawa ■ Osaka University Wolfgang Stuerzlinger ■ York University U nless you’ve been living underground for the last couple of years, you know that the Nintendo Wii has taken the gaming world by storm. Wii consoles, games, and ac- cessories fly off the shelves faster than they can be restocked, and enterprising resellers make a tidy profit hawking the Wii on eBay. Not only that, the Wii has brought a new demographic to gaming. Its appeal isn’t limited to males ages 15 to 30; moms, older adults, and whole families also enjoy the games. The Wii’s unique style of input and the types of games that can use this input make gaming on the Wii a unique experience. What makes the Wii special is its 3D user interface (3D UI). It employs not only 3D graphics (like all modern gaming con- soles) but also innovative spatial- input devices that can sense how the user moves them. The gamer can swing his or her arm to roll a bowling ball, point directly at the screen to grab an object, or punch the air to win a boxing match. Although playing with the Wii is the first time that many people have seen or experienced a 3D UI, research in this area has been around for many years. Researchers in fields such as VR and aug- mented reality (AR), human-computer interaction, computer graphics, and human-factors engineering have all wrestled with difficult questions about the design, evaluation, and application of 3D UIs. What 3D interaction techniques work best for important tasks such as navigation and manipu- lation? How should we design 3D input devices? What are the most appropriate mappings between 3D input devices, displays, and interaction tech- niques? How can we integrate multiple 3D tech- niques into a seamless 3D UI? These questions, and many others, make 3D UIs an exciting area with a wide variety of open issues. As the Wii demonstrates, 3D UI research is more relevant than ever. As a result, the 3D UI com- munity has been expanding and coalescing—the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces, first held in 2006, is one piece of evidence for this. In this article, leading experts in the field (the founders and organizers of the 3DUI Symposium) present seven pieces on the state of the art of 3D UIs and their future prospects. The first four pieces describe some of the latest 3D UI research trends. Bernd Froehlich covers the design of 3D input devices, specifically the use of novel combinations of sensors. Michitaka Hirose describes using biosignals (for example, brain ac- tivity) as an input mechanism. Providing haptic Three-dimensional user interfaces (3D UIs) let users interact with virtual objects,...
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course CAP 6938 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.
- Spring '08