games3DUI - Games and 3D User Interfaces Games Past Present...

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Unformatted text preview: Games and 3D User Interfaces: Games Past, Present, and Future Lecture #2: Games and 3DUI* Spring 2008 Joseph J. LaViola Jr. *Special thanks to Ivan Poupyrev Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3DUI and Video Games – Why? Video games Video multi-billion dollar industry: $10.5 billions in 2005 in US multimajor driving force in home entertainment: average gamer major today is 33 years old advanced 3D graphics in HOME rather then universities advanced or movies studios Driving force in technological innovation Driving graphics algorithms and hardware, sound, AI, etc. graphics technological transfer to healthcare, biomedical research technological defence, education (example: [email protected]) Recent innovations in 3D user interfaces Recent graphics is not enough anymore graphics complex spatial, 3D user interfaces are coming to home complex (example: Nintendo Wii) Why 3D user interfaces for games? Why natural motion and gestures natural reduce complexity reduce more immersive and engaging more Research in 3D UI for games is exiting Research will transfer 3DUI to other practical applications, e.g. education will education and medicine Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 1 3DUI and Video Games – What? Goal of 3DUI in games Goal desiging input devices and interaction techniques to desiging effectively control highly dynamic 3D computer generated contentent there are basic approaches there Mapping 2D input to interact with 3D world Mapping keyboard and mouse, joysticks, game controllers keyboard traditinal form of gaming user interfaces: traditinal e.g. Flight Simulator, Second life, Halo 3 Simulating real world tools or using physicial props Simulating simulation: steering wheels, light guns, musical simulation: instruments physical props: dance pads physical True spatial tracking of user gestures True camera, e.g. Sony Eyetoy camera, acceleration/infrared tracking: Wii controllers acceleration/infrared This talk focuses on last two interface solutions This Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Lecture Outline Historical Perspectives Historical early consoles early arcades arcades early 3D/VR game interfaces early 3DUI in the home today 3DUI new generation of game UI new The Future of UI in games The AR/VR/mobile games AR/VR/mobile working towards the future working Conclusions Conclusions Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 2 Historical Notes on Game UIs Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Early Video Games 1947: Cathode-ray 1947: tube amusement device probably the earliest probably proposal for electronic gaming device not known if it was not implemented Proposed interface Proposed knobs and buttons knobs Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3 Early Video Games Tennis for two: Second ever video game: Tennis 1958 by William Higinbotham @ Brookhaven National 1958 Laboratory display: oscilloscope, Input: dial and a button display: first ever computer game was invented by Douglas, A. first at Cambridge in 1952 Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Early Video Games Spacewar! first (?) computer game: Spacewar 1961 by Russell, S., Graetz, M. and Wiitanen, W. at 1961 Graetz, Wiitanen, MIT used DEC PDP-1 PDP interface: mostly buttons, but also joysticks and light interface: pen Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 4 Early video games 1971: “Computer Space” is a 1971: first ever arcade game Spacewar! clone created by Spacewar! Nolan Bushnell interface is mostly buttons interface has not become very popular has since its rules were too complex Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Early Video Games 1972: Magnavox 1972: “Odyssey” is a first ever home game console invented by Ralph Baer invented could play Ping-Pong could Pinggame collaborative: two people collaborative: first game controllers: first button and dials: 1D battery operated battery 1975: Atari creates Pong 1975: for home and arcades game industry is born game Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 5 Early Video Games 1977: Atari 2600 console 1977: cartridge based system, i.e. allows to change software cartridge 2D controllers: Joystick as well as peripherals devices, i.e. 2D trackball introduce quality sound hardware: still popular today introduce Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Early Video Games 1978: Magnavox 1978: Odyssey2 includes full-sized includes fullkeyboard used for educational used software and programming first home electronics first device with speech synthesis Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 6 Modern Consoles 1983: Nintendo Famicon 1983: modern controller layout: controls for both hands, directional modern buttons increasingly complex controllers and interfaces: games are still increasingly 2D, but interaction is becoming more complex and rich. 1994: Nintendo 64 1994: first “true” 3D console first adds joystick to controller, game pad gets more controls adds Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Modern Consoles 1996: Sony dual-shock controller 1996: dual- adds second joystick and shoulder buttons adds standard controller for PS, PS2, PS3 standard Some observations Some gradually increasing complexity of game gradually interfaces to allow more expression in games; difficult to master difficult focuses more and more on “hard-core” focuses hardgamers; casual gamers often find games difficult similar situation was in early arcades games similar Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 7 Arcade Games Arcade games: Arcade “Easy to learn, but difficult to master" has to be learned immediately has can not have complex interfaces can specialized interfaces for particular specialized games many innovative and original many interfaces often based on simulation activities often shooting, driving, snowboarding, shooting, fishing, sliding etc. many innovative and original many interfaces has been developed: 3D, haptic response, realistic. Spring 2008 www.afterpicture.com CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Arcade Games Video Arcades began in the mid Video 1970s (2D games only) (2D Pong Pong Breakout Breakout Space Invaders Space First game with 3D graphics – First Battlezone (1980) vector graphics vector very simple interaction very move and rotate on 2D plane move used two joysticks used Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 8 Arcade Games – UI Innovation BeachHead Spring 2008 Football Power Aliens Extermination CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Arcade Games – UI Innovation Manx TT Spring 2008 Dance Dance Revolution CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 9 Virtual Reality Arcade Games Arcades were first to Arcades introduce Virtual Reality and 3DUI in games head/body tracking head/body stereoscopic vision stereoscopic immersive displays immersive 3D spatial 3D interaction Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Virtual Reality Arcade Games Dactyl Nightmare: one of the Dactyl one first VR games part of several other VR games: part games: Legend Quest, Hero, Grid Busters 1-4 players basic shoot-em-up game basic shoot- em- Developed by W Industries/Virtuality Developed Industries/Virtuality in early 1990s 1990s system sold as the 1000CS system used Amiga 3000 computer used HMD with tracked 3D joystick HMD Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 10 Virtual Reality Arcade Games VR entertainment centers VR multi-user combat simulation in BattleTech universe multifighting robots fighting first opened in 1990 first provided an immersive experience provided very little in the way of 3D user interface very Can still play in Houston, Texas Can MechCorps (www.mechcorps.com) MechCorps www.mechcorps.com) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Virtual Reality Arcade Games DisneyQuest: Indoor interactive theme park (opened in 1998) DisneyQuest: Several VR games Several Pirates of the Caribbean: Battle for Buccaneer's Gold Pirates uses motion platform, shoot cannons, navigate with steering wheel uses wheel surround screen display, users wear stereo glasses surround Virtual Jungle Cruise Virtual users sit in raft, steer and paddle users Aladdin's Magic Carpet Ride Aladdin's users wear HMD, sit on motorcycle-like device to steer users motorcycle- Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 11 3D and VR on Game Consoles Several attempts to Several introduce 3D/VR for game consoles for Nintendo U Force Nintendo Mattel Power glove Mattel Sega 3D glasses Sega Nintendo Virtual Boy Nintendo Not successful Not low quality, did not work well low not really necessary since games not were simple enough considered to be a gimmick considered Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3D and VR on Game Consoles 1986: Sega Master System 1986: 3D glasses 3D used active LCD shutters used few games were supported few Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 12 3D and VR on Game Consoles 1995: Nintendo Virtual Boy 1995: Virtual reality goggles, monochrome, stereo Virtual Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Some Conclusions From History Games complexity Games increases 1970: Pong 1970: 1980: Donkey Kong 1980: 2000: Halo 2000: interaction complexity interaction increases Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 13 Some Conclusions From History The complexity of controllers The increased use same interface components use as in 60s Buttons Buttons Joysticks Joysticks Keyboard / mouse Keyboard combined together / increased combined number more difficult to learn and master more less accessible to casual user less 3D spatial controllers / 3DUI 3D very successful in arcades very failed in home devices failed inaccurate/low quality inaccurate/low Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3DUI in the Home Today Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 14 3DUI in the Home Today Revival and rapid growth of 3D spatial Revival interfaces for games today cheaper and higher quality of sensors cheaper fast game hardware can perform complex fast tracking/recognition need for simpler and more intuitive interaction with need games games has become mainstream culture, more casual games not only hard-core gamers hard- The first 3D UIs in people hands The often based on previous research results and ideas often simplified for price simplified Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3DUI in the Home Today 2003: Sony PS2 Eye Toy 2003: video camera interface for video PS2 casual/party games casual/party significant success in significant Europe/US based on several decades of based research on visual tracking in robotics and computer vision developed by Richard Marks developed Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 15 3DUI in the Home Today Nintendo Wii Nintendo latest game console from Nintendo Key innovation – Wiimote controller Key provides 3D UI in the home provides Makes games accessible to casual Makes users Great competitive edge over Xbox 360 / Great PS3 Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3DUI in the Home Today Wiimote features Wiimote uses Bluetooth for communication uses senses acceleration along 3 axes senses optical sensor for pointing (uses optical (uses sensor bar) provides audio and rumble feedback provides standard buttons and trigger standard uses 2 AA batteries uses Supports two handed interaction Supports can use 2 Wiimotes simultaneously can Easily expandable Easily expandable Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 16 3DUI in the Home Today Nunchuk Wii Helm Spring 2008 Steering Wheel Boxing Gloves Zapper Sports Pack Fishing Reel CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3DUI in the Home Today PS3 AR Game / Eye of PS3 Judgement first 3D AR games on the first market 3D interaction and 3D manipulation of 3D graphics images possible based on Cybercode: based Cybercode: technology for tracking 2D square markers invented in 1990s at invented Sony CSL Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 17 3DUI in the Home Today DLP – digital light projection DLP developed by Texas Instruments developed 3D DLP HDTV 3D high resolution 1920x1080 high high definition 1080p high no special graphics card needed no runs at 120Hz (60 Hz each eye) runs requires shutter glasses requires 3D stereoscopic content sent to 3D TV via DVI or HDMI port available on Samsung and available Mitsubishi TVs Play games in 3D Play DVDs as well DVDs Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3DUI in the Home Today Some observations/conclusions Some renaissance of 3D / spatial user renaissance interfaces in gaming for the first time very successful for with public attracts casual gamers attracts allows for easier introduction of allows new 3D user interfaces in the future still very simplistic when still compared with 3DUI developed in research labs great possibilities for the future great growth! Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 18 Future of Game UI Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Future of 3DUI in Gaming What are the technologies What that will influence future game 3DUIs? 1. 2. 3. 4. Toshiba Bubble Helmet (360 degree view) Transfer the body of VR research into games Development of complex Augmented Reality games Outdoor games with complex 3DUI Mobile 3D games Some examples follow Some Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 19 Future of Gaming: VR Port of Quake II to the CAVE Port developed by Paul Rajlich (NCSA) developed fully immersive experience fully uses 6DOF wand as gun proxy uses head tracking allows for peering around walls head players can physically jump and duck players Quake III Area ported to CAVE as well Quake Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Future of Gaming: VR SwordPlay: explore what 3D UIs SwordPlay: are appropriate in gaming developed as part of course in developed “Innovating Game developement“ (Brown U. 2006) user has sword and shield/bow user and arrow uses Mine‘s Over-the-Shoulder uses Over- thedeletion technique to invoke bow and arrow user can draw spells in 3D with user sword http://www.cs.brown.edu/courses/cs196-2/groups/swordplay/ Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 20 Future of Gaming: AR AquaGuantlet AquaGuantlet developed at Mixed Reality developed Systems Laboratory, Japan (Tamura et al. 2001) collaborative AR collaborative environment players wear see-through players seeHMDs shoot creatures shoot superimposed into real scene guns have vibration guns feedback www.jello.net Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Future of Gaming: AR Markerless AR Markerless technology tracking natural tracking features (SLAM techniques) no visual markers: no works in any unprepared environment future of AR gaming future Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 21 Future of Gaming: Outdoor Games AR Quake where monsters AR are superimposed into real world (i.e., Quake in the physical world) developed by Thomas, developed Piekarski et al. in 2000 (South Australia) can walk around in both can indoor and outdoor environments equipment is somewhat equipment cumbersome getting smaller and cheaper getting Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Future of Gaming: Mobile Games Today mobile gaming Today platforms PSP and Nintendo DS PSP interaction is still 2D interaction Future mobile Future platform true spatial interaction true location-based locationinteraction AR tracking and AR interaction Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 22 Moving Towards the Future of 3DUI and Games Body of knowledge on 3D user interfaces Body interaction technique interaction interaction metaphors and styles interaction input devices input usability studies usability Want to transfer to the video game domain Want reduce interaction complexity reduce provide more realistic experiences provide exercise!!! exercise!!! Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Conclusions 3D UI for games is important and 3D interesting research area Its real and possible to create new user Its interface culture Transfer to other areas of everyday Transfer human activity You can start developing 3D game user You interfaces yourself Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 23 Next Class XNA BootCamp XNA Readings Readings start reading XNA Game Studio Creator’s Guide (Cawood and McGee) start Creator’ (Cawood Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 24 ...
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