p226-li - Experimental Analysis of Mode Switching...

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Experimental Analysis of Mode Switching Techniques in Pen-based User Interfaces Yang Li 1 Ken Hinckley 2 Zhiwei Guan 3 James A. Landay 4, 5 1 Group for User Interface Research Computer Science Division, EECS University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-1776 [email protected] 2 Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052 [email protected] 3 Department of Technical Communication University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2195 [email protected] 4 DUB Group Computer Science and Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2350 [email protected] 5 Intel Research Seattle 1100 NE 45th Street Suite 600 Seattle, WA 98105 [email protected] Abstract Inking and gesturing are two central tasks in pen-based user interfaces. Switching between modes for entry of uninterpreted ink and entry of gestures is required by many pen-based user interfaces. Without an appropriate mode switching technique, pen-based interactions in such situations may be inefficient and cumbersome. In this paper, we investigate five techniques for switching between ink and gesture modes in pen interfaces, including a pen- pressure based mode switching technique that allows implicit mode transition. A quantitative experimental study was conducted to evaluate the performance of these techniques. The results suggest that pressing a button with the non-preferred hand offers the fastest performance, while the technique of holding the pen still is significantly slower and more prone to error than the other techniques. Pressure, while promising, did not perform as well as the non-preferred hand button with our current implementation. Categories & Subject Descriptors: H5.2. [ User Interfaces ]: Interaction styles, I.3.6 [ Methodology and Techniques ]: Interaction techniques General Terms: Design, Experimentation, Human Factors, Performance. Keywords: Pen interfaces, mode switching, mode errors, ink, gestures. INTRODUCTION Pen interaction techniques have demonstrated much promise in two general areas: raw ink intended for interpretation by a person [18], and gestures intended for immediate interpretation by a computer [12]. Inking allows data entry, while gestures are drawn to issue commands for manipulating the data. For example, a note-taking tool allows people to take notes via natural handwriting and to edit by making copy editing gestures to perform commands. Some note-taking tools, such as Windows Journal, support scratching out a word to delete it. However, if this gesture is performed on a system without any explicit signal for gestures, then naturally occurring ink strokes may be falsely classified as gestures, such as when the user shades part of a diagram. In some cases such problems can be averted, but in general it is extremely difficult, and it may often be intractable for computers to “understand” natural ink input and always “do the right thing” unless given some explicit guidance by the user.
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course CAP 6938 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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p226-li - Experimental Analysis of Mode Switching...

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