travel - 3D User Interface Travel 3D Techniques Lecture #8:...

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Unformatted text preview: 3D User Interface Travel 3D Techniques Lecture #8: Navigation I – Travel Spring 2008 Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Universal 3D Interaction Tasks Navigation Navigation Travel – motor component Travel Wayfinding – cognitive component Wayfinding Selection Selection Manipulation Manipulation System control System Symbolic input Symbolic Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 1 Travel the motor component of navigation the movement between 2 locations, setting movement the position (and orientation) of the user’s viewpoint the most basic and common VE interaction the technique, used in almost any large-scale VE Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Travel Tasks Exploration Exploration travel which has no specific target travel build knowledge of environment build Search Search naïve: travel to find a target whose position is not naï known primed: travel to a target whose position is known primed: build layout knowledge; move to task location build Maneuvering Maneuvering travel to position viewpoint for task travel short, precise movements short, Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 2 Travel Characteristics Travel distance Travel Amount of curvature/number of turns in path Amount Target visibility Target DOF required DOF Accuracy required Accuracy Other tasks during travel Other Active vs. passive Active Physical vs. virtual Physical Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. A Technique Classification – Component Decomposition Direction/Target Selection Travel Velocity/Acceleration Selection Conditions of Input Spring 2008 gaze-directed pointing choose target from list gesture slow in, slow out physical props start/stop buttons automatic start/stop constant movement CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3 Alternate Technique Classification – User Control Level Start to move position Indicate position velocity Travel Target specification Route specification Continuous specification acceleration Indicate orientation Stop moving Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Travel Techniques Physical locomotion (“natural” metaphors) Physical Steering techniques Steering Route planning Route Target-based techniques Target Manual manipulation Manual Viewpoint orientation techniques Viewpoint Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 4 Physical Locomotion Techniques Walking techniques Walking large-scale tracking largeWalking in place (GAITER) Walking Treadmills Treadmills single-direction with steering singleomni-directional omni- Bicycles Bicycles Other physical motion techniques Other VMC / Magic carpet VMC Disney’s river raft ride Disney’ Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Physical Locomotion Devices (I) Omni-Directional Treadmill Spring 2008 GaitMaster II Large Scale Tracking CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 5 Physical Locomotion Devices (II) String Walker Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Steering Techniques continuous specification of direction of motion continuous gaze-directed gazepointing pointing torso-directed torsocamera-in-hand camera- insemi-automated semiphysical device (steering wheel, flight stick) physical Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 6 Steering – Gaze-Directed Move viewpoint in direction of “gaze” Move Gaze direction determined from head Gaze tracker Cognitively simple Cognitively Doesn’t allow user to look to the side Doesn while traveling Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Steering – Gaze-Directed Implementation Each frame while moving: Each Get head tracker information Get Transform vector [0,0,-1] in head CS to Transform [0,0, v=[x,y,z] in world CS v=[x,y,z] v Normalize v: v = ˆ Normalize v ˆˆˆ Translate viewpoint by (v x , v y , v z )× current _ velocity Translate Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 7 Pointing Technique Also a steering technique Also Use hand tracker instead of head tracker Use Slightly more complex, cognitively Slightly Allows travel and gaze in different Allows directions – good for relative motion Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Pointing Implementation Each frame while moving: Each Get hand tracker information Get Transform vector [0,0,-1] in hand CS to Transform [0,0, v=[x,y,z] in world CS v=[x,y,z] v Normalize v: v = ˆ Normalize v Translate viewpoint by (v x , v y , v z )× current _ velocity ˆˆˆ Translate Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 8 Semi-Automated Travel Example – Galyean’s river analogy (1995) Example Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Route-Planning one-time specification one of path draw path draw points along path points manipulating user manipulating representation Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 9 Target-Based Techniques discrete specification of goal discrete point at object point choose from list choose enter coordinates enter Map/WIM-based target specification Map/WIM Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Map-Based Travel Technique User represented by icon User on 2D map Drag icon with stylus to Drag new location on map When released, When viewpoint animated smoothly to new location Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 10 Map-based Travel Implementation Must know Must map scale relative to world: s map location of world origin in map CS: o=(xo, yo, location o=(x z o) On button press: On if stylus intersects user icon, then each frame: if get stylus position in map CS: (x, y, z) get (x, move icon to (x, 0, z) in map CS move (x, Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Map-Based Travel Implementation (cont.) On button release: On Get stylus position in map CS: (x, y, z) Get (x, Move icon to (x, 0, z) in map CS Move (x, Desired viewpoint: pv = (xv, yv, zv) where Desired xv = (x – xo)/s (x zv = (z – zo)/s yv = desired height at (xv ,yv) Move vector: m = (xv-xcurr, yv-ycurr, zv-zcurr) * (velocity/distance) Move (x Each frame for (distance/velocity) frames: translate viewpoint by m Each (distance/velocity) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 11 Manual Manipulation – Grabbing the Air Technique Use hand gestures to move yourself Use through the world Metaphor of pulling a rope Metaphor Often a 2-handed technique Often May be implemented using Pinch Gloves™ May Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Grabbing The Air Implementation (one-handed) On pinch: On Obtain initial hand position in world CS: (xh, yh, zh) Obtain Each frame until release: Each Obtain current hand position in world CS: (x’h, y’h, z’h) Obtain Hand motion vector: m = ((x’h, y’h, z’h) - (xh, yh, zh)) Hand ((x Translate world by m (or viewpoint by –m) Translate (or (xh, yh, zh) = (x’h, y’h, z’h) (x Cannot simply attach objects to hand – do not Cannot want to match hand rotations Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 12 Viewpoint Orientation Techniques Head tracking Head Orbital viewing Orbital Non-isomorphic rotation Non Virtual sphere Virtual Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Next Class Navigation – Wayfinding Navigation Readings Readings 3DUI Book – Chapter 6 3DUI Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course CAP 6938 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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