wayfinding - 3D User Interface Wayfinding 3D Techniques...

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Unformatted text preview: 3D User Interface Wayfinding 3D Techniques Lecture #8: Navigation I – Wayfinding Spring 2008 Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Universal 3D Interaction Tasks Navigation Navigation Travel – motor component Travel Wayfinding – cognitive component Wayfinding Selection Selection Manipulation Manipulation System control System Symbolic input Symbolic Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 1 Wayfinding Cognitive process of defining a path Cognitive through an environment use and acquire spatial knowledge use aided by natural and artificial cues aided Common activity in our daily lives Common Often unconscious activity (not when we Often are lost) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Information for the Wayfinding Task Landmarks Landmarks Signs Signs Maps Maps Directional information Directional Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 2 Transferring Spatial Knowledge Want to transfer knowledge to the real Want world training training planning planning Navigation through complex environments Navigation to support other tasks Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Wayfinding in 3DUIs Difficult problem Difficult Differences between wayfinding in real Differences world and virtual world unconstrained movement unconstrained absence of physical constraints absence lack of realistic motion cues lack 3DUIs can provide a weath of information 3DUIs Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 3 Wayfinding as Decision Making Process Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Wayfinding and Travel Exploration Exploration browsing environment browsing useful in building cognitive map useful Search Search spatial knowledge acquired and used spatial naїve search – not enough info in cognitive map na primed search – use of cognitive map defines success primed Maneuvering Maneuvering uses very little of cognitive map uses Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 4 Wayfinding and Spatial Knowledge Landmark knowledge Landmark visual characteristics of environment visual shape, size, and texture shape, Procedural knowledge Procedural sequence of actions required to follow a path sequence requires sparse visual information requires Survey knowledge Survey topographical knowledge topographical object location/distance/orientation object Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Egocentric and Exocentric Reference Frames Egomotion – feeling we are the center of space Egomotion Egocentric – first person Egocentric relative to human body relative Exocentric – third person Exocentric relative to world relative Build up exocentric representation of world Build survey knowledge survey Use egocentric when exploring for first time Use landmark/procedural knowledge landmark/procedural Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 5 User-Centered Wayfinding Support (1) Field of view Field small FOV can inhibit wayfinding small user requires repetitive head movements user lack of optical flow in periphery lack Motion cues Motion enable judgment of depth and direction enable supports dead reckoning (backtracking of user’s own supports user’ movement) cue conflicts can hinder cognitive map development cue Multisensory Output Multisensory audio audio Tactile maps Tactile Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. User-Centered Wayfinding Support (2) Presence (feeling of “being there”) Presence assumed to have impact on spatial knowledge assumed closer to real world closer Search strategies Search Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 6 Environment-Centered Wayfinding Support Environmental design Environmental Artificial aids Artificial Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Environmental Design (1) World’s structure and format can aid in World wayfinding Legibility techniques Legibility divide large scale environment into parts with distinct divide character create simple spatial organization create include directional cues to support include egocentric/exocentric reference frames often repetitive often Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 7 Environmental Design (2) EDGE DISTRICT NODE PATH Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Environmental Design (3) Natural environment Natural horizon, atmospheric color, fog, etc… horizon, Architectural design Architectural lighting lighting closed and open spaces closed Color and texture Color Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 8 Artificial Cues Maps Maps Compasses Compasses Signs Signs Reference objects Reference Artificial landmarks Artificial Trails Trails Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Maps (1) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 9 Maps (2) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Maps (3) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 10 Maps (4) Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Compasses Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 11 Signs Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Reference Objects Objects that have well known size Objects chair, human figure, etc… chair, Useful to estimate distances Useful Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 12 Artificial Landmarks Local – help users Local in decision making processes Global – seen from Global any location Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. Trails Help user retrace steps Help Show what parts have been visited Show Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 13 Next Class System Control System Readings Readings 3DUI Book – Chapter 7 3DUI Spring 2008 CAP6938 – 3D User Interfaces for Games and Virtual Reality ©Joseph J. LaViola Jr. 14 ...
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