Ch01_ECOA2e - Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Objectives Know the difference between computer organization and computer architecture Understand

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Chapter 1 Introduction
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2 Chapter 1 Objectives Know the difference between computer organization and computer architecture. Understand units of measure common to computer systems. Appreciate the evolution of computers. Understand the computer as a layered system. Be able to explain the von Neumann architecture and the function of basic computer components.
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3 Why study computer organization and architecture? Design better programs, including system software such as compilers, operating systems, and device drivers. Optimize program behavior. Evaluate (benchmark) computer system performance. Understand time, space, and price tradeoffs. 1.1 Overview
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4 1.1 Overview Computer organization Encompasses all physical aspects of computer systems. E.g., circuit design, control signals, memory types. How does a computer work? Computer architecture Logical aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer. E.g., instruction sets, instruction formats, data types, addressing modes. How do I design a computer?
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5 1.2 Computer Components There is no clear distinction between matters related to computer organization and matters relevant to computer architecture. Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Anything that can be done with software can also be done with hardware, and anything that can be done with hardware can also be done with software.* * Assuming speed is not a concern .
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6 At the most basic level, a computer is a device consisting of three pieces: A processor to interpret and execute programs A memory to store both data and programs A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world. 1.2 Computer Components
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7 1.3 An Example System MHz?? MB?? PCI?? USB?? L1 Cache?? What does it all mean?? Consider this advertisement:
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8 Measures of capacity and speed: Kilo- (K) = 1 thousand = 10 3 and 2 10 Mega- (M) = 1 million = 10 6 and 2 20 Giga- (G) = 1 billion = 10 9 and 2 30 Tera- (T) = 1 trillion = 10 12 and 2 40 Peta- (P) = 1 quadrillion = 10 15 and 2 50 Exa- (E) = 1 quintillion = 10 18 and 2 60 Zetta- (Z) = 1 sextillion = 10 21 and 2 70 Yotta- (Y) = 1 septillion = 10 24 and 2 80 1.3 An Example System Whether a metric refers to a power of ten or a power of two typically depends upon what is being measured.
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Hertz = clock cycles per second (frequency) 1MHz = 1,000,000Hz Processor speeds are measured in MHz or GHz. Byte = a unit of storage 1KB = 2 10 = 1024 Bytes 1MB = 2 20 = 1,048,576 Bytes Main memory (RAM) is measured in MB Disk storage is measured in GB for small systems, TB for large systems. 1.3 An Example System
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This note was uploaded on 06/13/2011 for the course CGS 3269 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Ch01_ECOA2e - Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Objectives Know the difference between computer organization and computer architecture Understand

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