Ch10_ECOA2e

Ch10_ECOA2e - Chapter 10 Topics in Embedded Systems Chapter...

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Chapter 10 Topics in Embedded Systems
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2 Chapter 10 Objectives Understand the ways in which embedded systems differ from general purpose systems. Be able to describe the processes and practices of embedded hardware design. Understand key concepts and tools for embedded software development.
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3 10.1 Introduction Embedded systems are real computer systems that support the operation of a device (or machine) that usually is not a computer . The user of the embedded system is rarely aware of its existence within the device. These systems are all around us. They are in watches, automobiles, coffeepots, TVs, telephones, aircraft, and just about any “intelligent” device that reacts to people or its environment.
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4 10.1 Introduction Embedded systems are different from general- purpose systems in several important ways. Some key differences are: Embedded systems are resource constrained. Utilization of memory and power are critical. The economy of hardware and software is often paramount, and can affect design decisions. Partitioning of hardware and software is fluid. Embedded systems programmers must understand every detail about the hardware. Signal timing and event handling are crucial.
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5 10.2 Embedded Hardware Overview We will classify embedded hardware according to the extent to which it is adapted or adaptable by the people who program and install the system into the device that it supports. Accordingly, we say that embedded hardware falls into categories of: Off-the-shelf Configurable Fully-Customized Note: There are many other taxonomies. This one is convenient for our purposes.
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6 10.2 Embedded Hardware Overview Using off-the-shelf hardware, minimal hardware customization possible. Perhaps add memory or peripherals. The internal wiring stays the same. The most common off-the-shelf hardware is the microcontroller. Microcontrollers are often derivatives of “old” PC technology. They are inexpensive because development costs were recouped long ago. There are thousands of different microcontrollers.
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7 10.2 Embedded Hardware Overview Example microcontrollers are Motorola's 68HC12, Intel’s 8051, Microchip's 16F84A, and the PIC family. A simplified block diagram of a microcontroller is shown at the right.
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8 10.2 Embedded Hardware Overview We have seen all of these components before except for the watchdog timer. A watchdog timer helps guard against system hangs by continually checking for liveness. Watchdog timers are not used in all microcontrollers.
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9 10.2 Embedded Hardware Overview For some applications, microcontrollers are too limited in their functionality. Systems-on-a-chip (SOCs) are full blown
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Ch10_ECOA2e - Chapter 10 Topics in Embedded Systems Chapter...

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