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ferrous1 - Outline u Wrought Iron(Prehistoric Era to 1500...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline u Wrought Iron (Prehistoric Era to 1500 AD) Iron & Molten “Cast” Iron u Blast Furnace u Mineral Fuels u Puddling Furnace u Bessemer & Thomas Processes u Basic Oxygen Process u Siemens Process & Open-Hearth Furnace u Electric Furnaces u Pig FERROUS METALS Classifications u Open-Hearth Iron & Wrought Iron t Few Hundredths Of 1% Carbon u Steels t 0.04 to 2.25% Carbon u Cast Iron, Malleable Cast Iron, & Pig Iron t 2 to 4 % Carbon u White-Heart Malleable Iron t Virtually No Carbon Wrought Iron (Before 1500 AD) u Beginnings - Speculation (Absence Of Facts) t Accidental Smelting Of Iron Ores w w w t Iron Implements - Egypt (3000 BC) t Hardening By Heat Treatment - Greeks (1000 BC) t Spread To Europe & Britain (1000 BC) u Fibrous u Shaped Structure - Like Wood & Welded By Hammering While Hot Iron Characteristics u Fourth u Iron Most Abundant Element In World Ores t Dusty Reddish-Brown Rock t Mixture Of Iron & Oxygen (Iron Oxide) w w w w t Small Quantities Of Other Elements t 25 to 75% Iron Wrought Iron (Before 1500 AD) u Early Production - Bloomery t Small Furnace Made Of Clay t Heated By Charcoal Fire t Forced Bellows t Charcoal & Iron Ore Fed Through Aperture At Top t Oxygen In Ore & Carbon From Charcoal Formed Gas That Burned a Blue Flame t After Oxygen Burnt Off Ore, Tapped From Bottom t Bloom - Small, Spongy Ball Of Iron Produced t Hammered On Anvil w 1 Wrought Iron (Before 1500 AD) In In Iron Production In Liege, Belgium (Late 1400s) u Reached England In 1500s u Short Square Chimney Built Of Brick Or Stone u 10 to 16’ High u Similar To Bloomery, Only Bigger Bloomery, u u Bloomery t Never Operated On A Large Scale t Produced Iron Containing About 3% Slag & 0.1% Other Impurities u Accidental Early Blast Furnace Production Of Steel t Heat Wrought Iron & Charcoal In Clay Boxes For Several Days t Absorbed Carbon To Produce True Steel u Introduced t Operated At Higher Temperature t Higher Ratio Of Charcoal To Ore t Iron Absorbed More Carbon From Blast Of Air t Produced Molten (Cast) Iron Early Blast Furnace u Molten (Cast) Iron Accumulated At Bottom t Tapped At Intervals u Molten (Cast) Iron Channeled To Form “Pigs” t Pig Iron u As Charcoal & Iron Are Used, More Is Added At Top u Limestone Was Added - “Flux” Pig Iron u As Produced From Blast Furnace, Contains t Iron, 92% t Carbon, 3 To 4% t Silicon, 0.5 To 3% t Manganese, 0.25 To 2.5% t Phosphorous, 0.04 To 2% t Sulfur, Trace Amounts t Combined With Waste Materials t Formed Molten Waste - “Slag” Molten “Cast” Iron (1500 - 1700) u Few Uses - Must Be Cast On Site At Time t Cast Iron Cannons - Sussex (1543) u Molten Iron Went Through Second Process t Finery t Produce Wrought Iron t Rational Was Increased Production t Blast Furnace Could Make 10 Times Bloomery u Finery - Furnace t Charcoal As Fuel & Waterwheel-Driven Bellows t Cast Iron Re-Melted To Drive Off Carbon Finery u Produced Large Pieces Of Wrought Iron t Led To Problems t Ironworkers Needed Long Thin Bars u Power Hammer (Late 1500s) t Waterwheel-Driven t Pounded Iron Into Flat Thin Slabs u Slitting Mill (Late 1500s) t Cut Slabs Into Strips u Rolling Mill t Sketch - Leonardo da Vinci (1486) 2 Mineral Fuels Mineral Fuels In In Iron Production u u Till t Beginning Of Industrial Revolution t Use Of Coke In Blast Furnace 1700, Charcoal Was Used As Fuel t Made By Burning Large Heaps Of Wood t Impurities Burn Off In Smoke t Cool Quickly With Water u Coal w w w w Was Tried Unsuccessfully In Furnace t Patent - Dud Dudley (1600s) t Contains Sulfur t Sulfur Easily Unites With Iron - Iron Sulfides t Coke Was Already Invented - Make Malt (Brewing) u Coke t Made By Burning Large Heaps Of Coal t Impurities (Sulfur) Burn Off In Smoke t Cool Quickly With Water w History Of Blast Furnaces France u 1600 t 85 Charcoal-Fired Blast Furnaces In Britain u 1788 u t 53 Coke-Fired Blast Furnaces In Britain t 24 Charcoal-Fired u Early 1800s t No Charcoal-Fired Furnaces Still Operating Developments Of Blast Furnaces u Preheating Of Air Blast - J.B. Nelson (1828) t Increased Production w w Developments Of Blast Furnaces u Bell & Hopper (Cup & Cone) - G. Perry (1850) t Multiple Hopper Prevent Loss Of Gas u Increasing t Increased Quality u Reshaping Furnaces - John Gibbons (1832) t Round Hearth - 33% More Productive u Use Montcenis-Le Montcenis -Le Creusot 1785 u First French Coke-Fired Blast Furnace u Very Slow Dissemination Of Technique From Britain u Of Waste Gas t Inflammable Gas In Produced t Preheating Of Hot Air Blast Oxygen Content Of Hot Air Blast Furnaces u Pressurizing t Throttling The Flow Of Gas From Furnace Vents t Increases Pressure To 1.7 atm t Better Combustion t Post W.W.II 3 International Typical Ironworks Mechanically-Charged Blast Furnace Corby, Corby, Northhamptonshire u 1900 u Le Creusot, 1865 Creusot, Gluwitz In Silesia, 1830 Silesia, Pontypool , 1865 u Typical Blast Furnace u Components t Cylindrical Steel Shell Lined With Refractory w Typical Blast Furnace u Components (Continued) t Hoppers w w t Shell Is Tapered At Top & Bottom t Charge w w t Lower Portion Is Called Bosh t Hot Air Stoves w w w t Dump Cars Or Skips Ÿ Ÿ w t Top Portion Lets Gases Escape (Vent) Typical Blast Furnace Typical Blast Furnace u Operation t Operate Continuously t Small Charges Are Introduced At 10-15 Minutes t Spontaneous Combustion Of Charge t Slag Is Tapped Every 2 Hours t Molten Iron Tapped Five Times A Day t Hot Air Enters At 1000 To 1600oF t Waste Gases Are Recirculated ? 4 ...
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