ferrous2 - Puddling Furnace Bessemer Process u Sir Henry...

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Unformatted text preview: Puddling Furnace Bessemer Process u Sir Henry Bessemer t Inventions Low Arched Roof With Two Chambers u Molten Iron & Combustion Chamber Are Separated u w w w w w w t Bessemer Process (Beginning 1855) w Bessemer Process (Continued) u Very Simple Idea t Dismissed At First By All So-Called Experts t Observation Bessemer Process (Continued) u Numerous t 770 lb Iron (1/3 Ton) & Required 30 Minutes w w t Ordinary Air - 21% Oxygen t Converter (Pear) Tilted For Charging & Pouring u Process t Recall, To Convert Molten “Cast” Iron To Wrought Iron, The Carbon Must Be Removed t Bessemer Blew Cold Air Through The Molten Iron t Though He Produced Wrought Iron t However, He Produced Malleable Iron “Steel” u Produced u Process Bessemer Process (Continued) u t Experts Thought It Would Cool Iron Like A Volcano u Most Spectacular Sight In Iron & Steel Industry u Clear Flame Finally From Converter u Shown - 25 Ton Difficulties t Bessemer Licensed Process t Licensees Could Reproduce Quality Of Steel Bessemer Process (Continued) Iron Gets Hotter As Cold Air Passes Through It Mild Steel t Could Be Bent & Formed Without Heat w u Patents (1855 To 1856) Setup u Experimental Experimental Plant At St. Pancras t Ore Mined At Blaenavon, Blaenavon, Gwent (No Phosphorous) u u Bessemer Plant At Sheffield (1905) t Made A Fortune t Steam Boilers (1860) t Railway Rails (1863) 1 Thomas Process u P.G. Thomas, Police-Court Clerk & Scientist Phosphorous Problem u Removed t Lined Converter With Dolomite w w w w u Thomas Process Spread Quickly To Regions With Phosphorous Iron Ores (Most Abundant) Siemens Process u C.W. Siemens, Siemens, Germany t Improving Furnaces For Glass Making w w t First Applied To Steel Making In France w Basic Oxygen Process u Advancement Of Bessemer & Thomas Process u Air Is Replaced With High Pressure Stream t Pure Oxygen t Oxygen Lance (Water-Cooled Tip) t Supersonic Speed u 275 tons Per hour Siemens Process (Continued) u Phosphorous & Non-Phosphorous Molten Iron u Cost t Bessemer Was Cheaper (No Fuel) But Required Molten Iron w t Siemens Required Fuel w w u Speed t Siemens Process w t Bessemer - 30 min t Siemens - 10 hours u Could w Open-Hearth Process u Derived From Siemen’s Process u Components t Rectangular Brick Hearth (20’x30’x8’) t Regenerative Preheating u Operates At 3000oF t Steel Melts At 2500oF u Produces 100 tons Per hour Melt Scrap Iron Open-Hearth Furnace u Process Of Producing Steel t Furnace Can Be Charged With w w w t Carbon Content Is Lowered By w t Impurities Combine With Limestone As Slag w 2 Open-Hearth Furnace Electric Furnaces u Electric Arc Or Electric Induction u Primary Use Is Alloy & Specialty Steels t Charge Is Usually Scrap t Limestone & Iron Ore Are Added In Small Amounts t No Contamination From Fuel t Alloying Elements Are Added In Charge Or Later u Electric Arc t Refractory Lined Vessel Of Drum Shape t Heat Is Generated By Electric Arc u Electric Induction t Electric Current Induces Secondary Current In Vessel Electric-Arc Furnace Classifications Of Steels u Carbon Steels Steels u High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels u Stainless Steels u Tool Steels u Alloy Carbon Steels u 90% Of All Steels u Composition t Varying Amounts Of Carbon t Less Than 1.65% Maganese t Less Than 0.60% Silicon t Less Than 0.60% Copper u Uses t Auto Bodies, Machines, Structural Steel For Buildings, Ship Hulls, Etc. Alloy Steels u Composition t Certain Percentages Of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Or Other Elements t Larger Amounts Of Maganese, Maganese, Silicon, & Copper Than Carbon Steels u Uses t Auto Gears & Axles, Knives 3 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels u Called HSLA u Combination Between Carbon Steels & Alloy Steels u Cost Less Than Alloy Steels u Stronger Than Carbon Steels Stainless Steels u Composition t Chromium t Nickel t Other Alloying Elements u Properties t Corrosion Resistance t Hard & Strong Tool Steels u Composition t Tungsten t Molybdenum t Cobalt t Other Alloying Elements u Properties t Hardness 4 ...
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