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flight1 - Classifications u AERONAUTICS Lighter-Than-Air t...

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Unformatted text preview: Classifications u AERONAUTICS Lighter-Than-Air t Free Balloons t Airships u Specialized t Kite-Balloons t Kites t Parachutes ??? Origins Balloon Ascents u Kite Balloons, Kites & Parachutes u Epoch Of The Airship u Ornithopters u Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders u Powered Aeroplane u Jet Power u Rockets u Helicopters u First u Daedalus Lourenco de Gusmao (1709) t Hot-Air Model - No Passengers t Demonstrated Before King Of Portugal u Joseph & Etienne Montgolfiere t Man-Carrying Hot-Air Model (1782) u J.F. Pilatre de Rozier & Marquis d’Arlandes t Ornithopters t Helicopters t Gliders t Aeroplanes t Ballistic Rockets & His Son, Icarus w u Archytas Of Tarentum (4th Century BC) w u Roger Bacon & Albert The Great (1200s) u Albert Of Saxony (1300s) u Leonardo da Vinci (1400s) w u Robert Hooke (Late 1600s) t Experiments With Flying Machines - Records Lost First Balloon Ascents u Bartholomeu Heavier-Than-Air Early Origins Outline u Early u First Balloon Ascents u J.A.C. Charles (1746-1823) t Hydrogen Would Be More Efficient Than Hot Air w t “ Charliere” Made First Flight 10 Days After de Charliere” Rozier & d’Arlandes w w t First Free-Flight By Man (1783) t “ Montgolfiere” Balloon Montgolfiere” w w w 1 First Balloon Ascents Kite Balloons Military Development Of Free Balloon u Used For Observation - WW I u First Practical Kite Balloon - German “Drachen” “Drachen” u Montgolfiere Charliere t Elongated Gas-Filled Balloon (1896) t Led To Zeppelin Development Kites u Parachutes Chinese (1000 BC) t Man-Lifting Purposes ? Europe - Romans (1400s) u Single Monoplane Lifting Surfaces u Box-Kite (1893) u t Hargrave t More Efficient t Tandem Biplane Lifting Surfaces t Man-Lifting ! u Known To Ancient Chinese da Vinci (1400s-1500s) u Early Experimenters u Leonardo t Blanchard (1777) - dropped Animals t Montgolfiere (1779) u A.J. Garnerin (1797) - First Human Jump Berry (1912) - First Aeroplane Jump u E.M. Maitland (1913) - First Airship Jump u 1920s - First Free-Fall Packed Parachutes u A. Epoch Of The Airship u Balloons - Problems t Navigation - Paddles, Oars, Propellers t Elongated Workable Dirigible Balloon Epoch Of The Airship u t First Man-Carrying Airship t 17 Miles At 5 mph t 3 hp Steam Engine w t Light & Powerful Means Of Propulsion u Charles (1784) t Elongated A Hydrogen Balloon t Air-Filled Ballonet Contained Within Main Envelope u T. u Le Monck Mason (1843) - 6 mph Berrier (1844) - Steam Powered H. Giffard (1852) - Shown t 3 Bladed Propeller u First Pratical Model t Renard & Krebs t 1884 t 9 hp Electric Motor t 5 Miles At 14 mph 2 Epoch Of The Airship u Rigid Airship - Hydrogen t D. Schwarz (1897) - Unsuccessful t Count F. von Zeppelin (1900) Epoch Of The Airship u Royal Naval Air Service u British Airship R101 t “Coastal” Class t WW I (1914-1918) t 1929 t Passenger Service t Non-Rigid t Hydrogen t Water Ballast t Two 112 kW Engines Ornithopters Flapping-Wing Flying-Machines Leonardo da Vinci - Shown u Marey (1892) - Flight Of Pigeons Recorded u Current Aerodynamic & Physics Theory Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders u u u u t Possible ????? Hooke (1655) - Thought About Fixed-Wing Flight Sir George Caylay t “Father Of Aerial Navigation” t Aerodynamic Lift & Drag Forces (1799) t Experimental Gliders (1804) t Full Size Man Carrying Glider (1852/53) w Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders u Otto Lilienthal t Applied Principles Of Caylay t Contol & Stability t Flew Gliders t Over 1000 Fights t Died In Crash (1896) t Worked On Power u P.S. Pilcher t Followed Lilienthal t Died In Crash (1899) u Both Would Have Beaten Wright Bros . Bros. Fixed Wing Flight - Gliders u Octave Chanute t Gliding Experiments t Used Hargrave’s Box Kites To Develop Gliders t Encouraged Wright Bros. Bros. w t Passes Information Between America & Europe u Voisin Bros. Bros. t Two Box Kite Gliders With Pontoons (1905) w u Wright Bros. Bros. t Experimented Extensively With Gliders t 3 Versions - 1900, 1901, 1902 3 Powered Aeroplane u Aerodynamic Theory Powered Aeroplane u u t Caylay (1799) t Trial & Error t Lanchester (1907 & 1908) t From Hydrodynamic Theory (Bernoulli, Euler, Etc.) Euler, u Powered W.S. Hensen - Patent (1842) Large Transport Aeroplane - Steam Engine t Never Flew t 150’ Wing Span t “Aerial Transit Company” Model Aeroplanes t First - de la Croix (1857) t Steam Powered - S. P. Langley (1896) w Wright Bros . Bros. Orville (Bicycle Manufacturer) & Wilbur First Powered, Sustained, & Controlled Flight u “Flyer” - Tailless Pusher Biplane (Dec 17, 1903) u u t 12 secs, 40 yds Long, 3ft High, 30 mph secs, t 12 hp Petrol Engine t Kitty Hawk, NC Wright Bros . Bros. Am. Press Ignored Their Success For Several Years u Third “Flyer” - 24 Miles In 38 min u Gov’t Contract - One Biplane (1908) u 1908 Wright Biplane (Kitty Hawk Museum) u t Control By Front Elevators, Wing Warping, Double Rudder Santos-Dumont 14 bis u Alberto Santos-Dumont t Independently In Europe w w t Octobe 23, 1906 - 65 yards t 50 hp Antoinette Petrol Engine u Wright Bros. Were Quickly Out-Paced Bros. 4 ...
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