iceng1

iceng1 - Outline INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES u Gas Engines...

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Unformatted text preview: Outline INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES u Gas Engines Engines u Diesel Engine u Petrol Engine u Oil Gas Engines u Huygens u Papin u Etienne Lenoir Beau de Rochas u N. A. Otto u Crossley Brothers u Alphonse Huygens & Papin u Huygens (1629-1695) t Pre-Steam t Small Quantity Of Gunpowder In Cylinder t Explosion Raises Cylinder t Power On Downstroke u Denis Papin Etienne Lenoir (1822-1900) u Resembled Horizontal Double-Acting Steam Engine t Cylinder, Piston, Connecting Rod, Flywheel Gas & Air Replaced Steam u High Tension Spark u t Battery & Induction Coil u Return Stroke t Expelled Exhaust Slide Valves u Water Cooled u (1647-1714) t Same Concept 4-Stroke Cycle u Lenoir t 100 ft3 Of Gas Consumed Per hp-hour Of t No Initial Compression Of Mixture u Alphonse Beau de Rochas (1815-1891) t Patent (1862) w t 1. Explosive Mixture In t 2. Mixture Compressed t 3. Burning Mixture Drives Piston t 4. Burnt Gases Are Exhausted 1 N. A. Otto (1832-1891) German Engineer Vertical Atmosphereic Gas Engine (1867) u Horizontal Gas Engine (1878) Otto (Continued) u u t Based On Beau de Rochas Cycle u Otto Never New Of Earlier Patent u Produced 35,000 Engines Within Several Years u Very Few Used Electric Ignition t Most Used A Flame Drawn Into Cylinder u By 1878 - 28 ft3 per hp-hour per Early Flame Ignition u Dual Flames t External t Internal Internal Is Extinguished During Ignition u Incorporated Slide Valves u Crossley Brothers u Other Developers u Dugald Clerk (1879) t 2-Stroke Engine t Single-Acting Lenoir Engine u Griffin t 6-Stroke Engine Oil Engines Built Many 4-Stroke Engines Under Otto Patent u Hock & Brayton & Priestman u Hornsby u Dent 2 Hock & Brayton u Gas Producing Plants Limited Development u J. Hock (1873) - Paraffin (Kerosene) t Pressurized Air Broke Up Jet Of Oil Into Mist t Incomplete Combustion - Unsatisfactory u Brayton Dent & Priestman Used Vapor Of Heavy Oil Otto Cycle - Horizontal & Vertical u 100 hp u Portable Model u u (1873) t Two Cylinders w w t Air Forced Trough Oil Soaked Absorbent Material t Double-Acting, 2-Stroke Cycle t 1890 - Single-Acting On Otto Cycle Hornsby Oil Engine Vaporizer u Oil Lamp To Heat Mixture Prior To Starting (10 min) Diesel Engine u u Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) t Patent (1892) t Based On Otto Cycle t Basic Principle w Ÿ w w t Worked With All Types Of Petroleum Oil Diesel Engine (Continued) u 11% Greater Efficiency Than Any Other Prime Mover u Disadvantages t Heavier & More Solid Engine t Roughness At Low Speeds t Cold Starting Petrol Engines u Gottlieb Daimler u Karl Benz u Electric Ignition u Float-Feed Carburettor u Hot Tube Ignition u Opposed Pistons u Balancing 3 Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Daimler (Continued) u Patent u Father Of Modern IC Engine u Premise u Patent t Small & Light t High-Speed Motor t Power By High Speed Rotation u Patent (1889) t V-Type Twin Cylinder w w (1884) t Used On Motor Cars On Both Continents t Sold In Large Quatities t “First Modern Day IC Engine” t High-Speed Gas Engine t Hot Tube Ignition u Patent (1885) t Surface Carburettor (1885) t Single Cylinder, Enclosed Crank & Flywheel V-Type Twin Cylinder V-Type Twin-Cylinder (Operation) u First Down Stroke t Carburetted Air At Atmospheric Pressure Through Mushroom Valve t Light Spring Closes Valve u First Return Stroke t Mixture Is Compressed (3:1) t At TDC, Charge Is Fired By Hot Tube Ignition Gases Increase In Pressure (20:1) V-Type Twin-Cylinder (Operation) u Second Down Stroke t Driven By Exploding Mixture t Mechanical Valve Opens To Release Exhaust To Silencer - Remains Open During Return u Second Return Stroke t Completely Drives Out Exhaust t Exhaust Valve Closes u Cycle Repeats V-Type Twin-Cylinder (Properties) u2 to 1 Exhaust Valve Gearing t No Exhaust On First Return Stroke u Governor Controlled t Keeps Exhaust Valve Closed If Speed Exceeds Maximum u Flywheel During Non Power Stroke t Pistons Don’t Oppose Each Other u Cylinder & Valve Casting Is Water Jacketed t Radiator 4 Karl Benz u “Father Of First Motor Car” u 3.5 hp Single Cylinder Petrol Engine (1893) t Otto Cycle t Slow Speed t Primtive Surface Carburettor & Mixer t Electric Ignition - High Tension System Karl Benz w u Patent (1885) t First Motor Vehicle By Benz Benz (1885) - Electric Ignition Electri Ignition - Operation u4 Volt Accumulator In Series With Primary Winding Of Induction Coil u Trembler Switch t When Core Energizes, Interrupts Circuit t Switch Springs Back Till Core Energizes t Cycle Repeats Rapidly Making a Buzz u High Tension Winding Delivers A Series Of Sparks u Rotary Switch Makes Sure Ignition Takes Place At Correct Time Float Feed Carburettor Wilhelm Maybach (1893) Daimler Engines u Petrol Fed By de Dion & Bouton u u t Gravity t Pressure u Needle Jet u Float Controls Petrol Level t Air Suction Mixes Petrol 1895 Light, High Speed u Single Cylinder, Air Cooled u Otto Cycle u 1500 rpm u Surface Carburettor u New Ignition System u Precursor For Many Engines To Follow u u 5 de Dion (1895) - Electric Ignition Electric Ignition - Operation u Primary Battery u Plain Induction Coil u Cam & V-Shaped Notch 6 ...
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