intro2

intro2 - Farmer, Smith, Wheel u Social influences of copper...

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Unformatted text preview: Farmer, Smith, Wheel u Social influences of copper and iron Common ground u The wheel u Glass u Gearing u Early machines in Egypt u Greece & Rome u The Dark ages u The THE SECOND AGE The Farmer, The Smith, The Wheel Social Influences of Copper & Iron Introduction u Nomadic hunter to agricultural villager t End of last ice age brought life (10,000 BC) t Wild wheat and goat grass t Wheat, barley, & millet was harvested u Villages Cause Copper and Bronze were expensive u Skill Craftsman Metals were used for ornaments Society was a hierarchy u grew to cities t reed & mud, unbaked clay, baked brick u Animals were domesticated u Copper, tin, & bronze (Mesopotamia) u u u Ironmaking & forging was complex Iron was inexpensive The Common Ground u Metallurgy became the common ground t Society needed food t Farming community needed tools t Metal workers became skilled craftsmen t Mining of Ores (Copper, Tin, Iron) t Construction of Furnaces & Crucibles t Bellows (3,000 BC) from skins/hides t Transportation (wheel !) industry grew Effect u u Metal tools expensive u Farmers used wood, stone, & bone tools Elitist Society u u Small agricultural surpluses u Democratic metal IRON AGE u Plough u Not possible in Copper age of hoe for tilling u Caschrom - lightweight man-plough u Animal-drawn plough (3,000 BC) u Improvement 1 Egyptian Hand Digging Instrument (1500 BC) Tools From Early Metallurgy u Plough u Copper Nails & Rivets (Egypt, 2500 BC) nails used in ships u Woodscrews (Roman, 400 AD) u Shears (Egypt, 4500 BC) u Iron The Wheel Transporting Heavy Loads u Used for transporting heavy loads from potters wheel u First was stone ? u Solid wood u Spoked u Axle - Egyptian war chariot u Evolved Stretcher Sledge 2 Ur (3,500 BC) Mercurago Assyrian (700 BC) Mercurago Egyptian (1500 BC) Greek (400 BC) 3 Etruscan (400 BC) Roman (300 BC) Etruscan (300 BC) Plaustrum (200 BC) Roman (100 AD) Leonardo 4 Pneumatic Studded (1907) Gearing u Purposes u Friction - no teeth (Aristotle, 384 BC) u Materials t Wood - large units transmitting power t bronze or brass - timekeeping, astronomy u Lanthorne u Helical Early Machines in Egypt u Hero of Alexandria (BC/AD) t Lever (3000 BC) t Wheel & Axle (3000 BC) t Wedge (3000 BC) t Pulley (700 BC) - Not used in pyramids t Screw Greece & trundle gears (Robert Hooke, 1666 AD) Hooke, Chinese u Cast iron (350 BC) t 13 centuries before the west u Double-acting box bellows u Steel (100 BC) u Papermaking (100 AD) u Gunpowder u Little technology transfer to west despite “Silk Road” Architecture - Parthenon u Heavily dependent on slaves u Great builders u Architecture u Scientists instead of technologists t Mathematics, Astronomy, Philosophy t Not great inventors t Archimedes u Horizontal waterwheel (Norse mill) t 0.5 horsepower 5 Roman Horizontal Waterwheel u Heavily u Vertical dependent on slaves waterwheel (Vitruvius, 180 AD) (Vitruvius, t 3.0 horsepower u Bridges & roads u Aqueducts u Water usage t 270 liters per person per day t Lead pipes t Fall of Roman empire Vertical Waterwheel 6 ...
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