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intro5 - Optics Crank u Telescope t Johannes Lippershey...

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Unformatted text preview: Optics Crank u Telescope t Johannes Lippershey ( Middleburg, 1608) (Middleburg , t By accident - no knowledge of optics t Manufactured & sold in London (1609) u Microscope u Conversion of rotary & reciprocating motions u Cam - Hero of Alexandria u Crank & connecting rod (1430) t Inventor unknown w u Surveyors quadrant (1631) t Earliest - Joseph Lusuerg (Rome, 1674) Crank & Connecting Rod Print u Greatest invention of Middle ages Gutenberg (Germany, 1440) u Johannes t Invention of paper reached Germany in about 1320 t Cutting of punches from brass, punch copper plate, pour molten iron t Development of inks u First book (Caxton, 1474) (Caxton, u By 1500, 1050 presses in Europe Screw Press THE FOURTH AGE Intimations of Automation 1 Intimations of Automation - first mass production ? system u Interchangeability of components u A computer too early Coinage u Coinage u As u Factory u Coin early as 600 BC Blanks (1000) t Sheet of metal, hammered, then cut u Bramante (Florence, 1500) t Utilized screw press t Rolling mills u Boulton (Soho, (Soho, 1797) t Utilized power from steam engine Factory System Factory System (continued) u Industrial u Began u Textile with print shops and mints industry (late 1700’s) t Flying shuttle (Kay, 1755) t Water frame (Arkwright, 1790) (Arkwright, t Spinning Jenny (Hargreave, 1760) (Hargreave, t Mule (Crompton, 1788) (Crompton, t Power Loom (Robert, 1825) cities t Coal and oil in addition to steam t No need to locate industry by a river t Britain w u Metal-working industries operated by steam t Machines create more machines t lathes, boring, milling, shaping, slotting, planing, grinding, & gear-cutting James Watt’s Micrometer (1772) Henry Maudslay’s Screw Cutting Lathe (1797) u Primarily 2 Interchangeability of Components u Beginning of mass production u Locks t Joseph Bramah (1790) t Required accuracy in production t Barrel of lock fits casing of another u Smooth bore flintlock muskets t Eli Whitney (1798) t Supplied US govt. with 15,000 govt. t Required 8 years A Computer Too Early u Charles Babbage t Professor of Mathematics, Cambridge u Difference Engine (1833) t Special purpose calculating machine u Analytical Engine (>1834) t Universal calculator u Engine ? t Power by steam (no foresight) u Purely mechanical with highly precise gearing and machining Difference Engine (1833) THE FIFTH AGE The Expansion of Steam Pre-Steam u Francesca della Porta (1606) t Suction caused by condensing steam t Ability to draw up water u Otto von Guericke (1654) t Two teams of 8 horses can’t pull apart copper sphere made of two halves u Blaise Pascal (1648) t Weight of column of air is less at elevation u Robert Boyle (1660) t Gas laws Steam Engine u Hero of Alexandria u Newcomen (1712) t 21 inch dia. piston (12 strokes per min) dia. t 10 gallons of water 51 yards per stroke t Low efficiency u Watt t Condense steam & create vacuum t Separate condenser (1769) t Double-acting engine (1782) t Rotative Engine (1781) 3 Newcomen (1712) Development of Steam u Trevithick (1799) t High pressure steam u Fulton (1807) t Clermont on Hudson river u Sirius crossed Atlantic (1830) u Intercontinental Railway Chronology u Huygens THE SIXTH AGE utilized gunpowder in piston and cylinder u Etienne Lenoir (1859) t Coal gas as fuel with ignition The Freedom of Internal Combustion u Nikolaus Otto (1877) t Four-stroke cycle u Gottlieb Daimler (1885) t Petrol as fuel Benz Tricycle (1855) Chronology (continued) u Paris-Rouen race (1894) Diesel (1892) u Wright Brothers (1903) u Ford Model “A” (1903) u Rudolf 4 Chronology u Gas Lines (Late 1700s) t Philippe Lebon (1799) w THE SEVENTH AGE Electrons Controlled t Frederick Windsor (1807) w w w u Hydraulic Mains t Joseph Bramah w w Chronology (continued) Chronology (continued) u Telephone u Electricity t William Gilbert (1600) t Alessandro Volta (1800s) w w t Michael Faraday (1831) w w t Wheatstone & Cooke (1845) w w - Bell (1876) Light Bulb (1879) u Incandescent t Thomas Edison - USA t J.W. Swan - England u Electronics t J.A. Fleming - Diode (1904) t ASCC/IBM - First computer ? (1944) w w t ENIAC - First Electronic Computer (1946) w 5 ...
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