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nonferrous - Non-Ferrous Metals u Copper u Tin&...

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Unformatted text preview: Non-Ferrous Metals u Copper u Tin & Bronze & Silver u Brass & Zinc u Nickel u Aluminum & Magnesium u Beryllium & Titanium u Niobium & Columbium u Cobalt, Tantalum & Chromium u Platinum u Lead NON-FERROUS METALS Categories u Precious Processing Considerations Metals t Gold, Silver, Platinum u Base u Melting Point Point u Specific Gravity u Atomic Bonds u Reactivity u Solubility Metals u Boiling t Old: Iron, Tin, Copper, Zinc, Lead t New: Nickel, Magnesium, Cobalt, Aluminum u Specialty Metals t Niobium, Chromium, Beryllium, Titanium, Tantalum u Pure Alloys t Bronze, Brass Copper u General t Element, Cu t Melts At 1981oF t Boils At 2567 oF t Specific Gravity = 8.9 t Brownish-Red Color u History t Prehistoric People t Egypt, Asia Minor, China, Cyprus, Crete, Am. Indians Copper (Continued) u Properties t Conducts Electricity & Heat t Resists Corrosion t Malleable & Ductile t Tensile Strength - 60 ksi u Uses t Coins t Wire t Ornamental t Sheathing 1 Copper (Continued) u Metallurgy Copper (Continued) u Melted t Native Copper w w t Sulfide Ores (Chalcopyrite & Bornite) (Chalcopyrite Bornite) w u Crucible w Ÿ Copper (Continued) Earliest Known Crucible Furnace u Reconstruction u Copper (Continued) u Melting t Abu Matar, Beersheba Matar, t Perrot (1951) Natural Draught Furnace Remelting Impure Copper w Copper (Continued) u Smelting Of Oxide & Carbonate Copper Ores t Easily Smelted In Primitive Furnaces t Separate Copper, Iron & Other Unwanted Ores t Chalcolithic Smelting Furnaces At Timna (3000 BC) w w t Egyptians At Timna (1200 BC) t Reached Zenith At Timna (1100 BC) u Smelting Of Sulfide & Arsenic Copper Ores & Casting Native Copper t Originated In Anatolia, Turkey (5000 to 4000 BC) Anatolia, t Spread From Asia Minor t First Copper Artifacts In Sialk , Iran (4500 BC) Sialk, t Egyptian Artifacts (5000 to 4000 BC) t Supplies Of Native Copper Became Inaccessible To Supply Demand t Copper Artifacts After 3500 BC Contained Base Metal Impurities t 3300 - 3000 BC t Chalcolithic Site u Furnaces t Vertical Cylindrical Clay Shaft t Crucible Surrounded By Charcoal In Shaft t Free Draught t Used For Casting w u Native Copper t Heat From Above By Charcoal Fire t Lens-Like Ingot In Clay Lined Saucer Beneath Fire Bed t Forced Draught Or Chimney Copper (Continued) Egyptians At Timna 1200 BC u Reconstruction Of Remains Of Smelting Furnace u Cooper Settles To Bottom Of Furnace Below Slag u Plane-Convex Ingots u u 2 Copper (Continued) Tin u General Timna (1200 BC) u Heated From Above u Copper & Slag Tapped Simultaneously To Bed Of Sand u Tap Hole For Slag u t Element, Sn t Melts At 450oF t Boils At 4100 oF t Specific Gravity = 7.28 u History t Tombs Of Ancient Egyptians t Exported From Cornwall, England Cornwall, Tin (Continued) Metal Working u Annealing u Properties t Highly Malleable & Ductile > 212oF u Uses t Tin Plating t Tin Cans t Alloying w w t About 5000 BC t Heat Up Metal, Hammer, Cool Down (Repeat) t Used Ordinary Wood Fires t Without Heat Metal Becomes To Hard & Brittle u Smelting t Reduce Copper Ores To Copper t Two-Chamber Pottery Kiln u Alloying w t Result of Smelting Process (About 3000 BC) t Ores Bearing Different Metals Bronze u History - Well Established By 1500 BC t Arsenic Coppers Decline (3000 BC) t Iran - 2.5% Tin (3000 BC) t Sumeria - 8 to 10% (3000 - 2500 BC) t Egypt - 8 to 10% (2500 - 2000 BC) t Thailand - 8 to 10% (2000 BC) t China - 8 to 10% (2800 BC) t England (2200 BC) t Italy (1850 BC) t Spain (1700 BC) Bronze (Continued) u Uses In Ancient world t Weapons & Cutting Tools w w w w w t Bowls & Cauldrons t Furnishing - Greece & Rome w w 3 Bronze (Continued) Chinese Bronzes Shang Dynasty (1500 BC) to Ch’in Dynasty (206 BC) u Artistic Vessels u Casting Techniques Rocking Crucible u 1600 - 1200 BC u Greek Islands u Sinai Region u t Snakes, Dragons, Etc. u Angyang (1400 - 1027 BC) u Weight > 1.6 tons u Multi-part Mold u t Pre-fired Clay Segments Lead Silver u General t Element, Pb t Melts At 662oF, Boils At 3164oF t Specific Gravity = 11.34 u General t Element, Ag t Melts At 962oF t Boils At 2212 oF t Specific Gravity = 10.5 u History t Obtained From The Ore Galena t Also From Cerussite & Anglesite t Anatolian - 6500 BC u History t Extracted From Lead (About 4000 BC) t Silver-Rich Lead - Aegean Area t Valuable Material Till Roman Empire u Uses t Batteries, Cable Sheathing, X-Rays, Shielding Radioactive Material Silver (Continued) u Properties t Lustrous (High Polish) t Most Malleable & Ductile t Excellent Electrical Conductivity u Uses t Jewelry t Electrical Components u Processing t Smelting Silver Ores t Chemically Precipitating Metallic Silver Brass u Origins Are Uncertain (Like Bronze) From Smelting Process Of ZincBearing Cooper Ores u Zinc Not Naturally Found With Copper u Artifacts u Accidentally t Cyprus (2000 BC) w t China (2000 BC) w t China (1200 BC) w 4 Zinc u General Zinc (Continued) u Properties t Element, Zn t Melts At 788oF t Boils At 1665 oF t Specific Gravity = 7.14 t Silver-White Color u History t Ores Known Since 1000 to 2000 BC t Element - Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (1746) t Brittle t Insoluble In Water t Soluble In Alcohol, Acids, Alkalies u Uses t Protective Coating t Galvanizing t Alloying With Copper t Die Castings w Zinc (Continued) Zinc (Continued) Transform Ores To Oxides By High Temp u Zinc Boils & Distills In Retort u Also Can Be Subjected To Sulfuric Acid And Electrolyzed u Nickel u Paktong - Chinese t Unknown Composition Till 1822 (Fyffe) (Fyffe) w w t Chinese Used In 1st Century AD t Used In Coins & Cutlery t Shipped To England 1700s In Ingot Form t Unable To Produce In England w Nickel (Continued) u General t Element, Ni t Melts At 2651oF t Boils At 2730 oF t Specific Gravity = 8.9 (Same As Copper) t Silver-White Color u History t Discovered By Axel Cronstedt (1751) t Isolated Metal From Niccolite Ore 5 Nickel (Continued) u Properties t Hardness t Malleable & Ductile t Magnetic Below 653oF u Abundance t Largest Supplies In Quebec, Canada t Cuba (Meteors), Soviet Union, China, & Australia t No Reserves In US Nickel (Continued) u Uses t Coating - Protective & Ornamental w w t Alloy w w w t Coins - 25% Nickel, 75% Copper t Batteries w Nickel (Continued) u Processing t Ores Are Smelted In Blast Furnace w t Electrolytic Process w w t Mond Process (Ludwig Mond, England, 1889) Mond, w w Aluminum u General t Element, Al t Melts At 1220oF t Boils At 4473 oF t Specific Gravity = 2.7 t Silver-White Color u History t Isolated By Hans Christian Orsted (1825) w w w t Chemical Process Involving Potassium Amalgam w Aluminum (Continued) Aluminum (Continued) u Properties t Malleable & Ductile t Extremely Reactive w w w u Abundance t Most Abundant Metallic Compound In The World t Never Found Pure w u Uses - US (1989) t Containers & Packaging, 31% t Building & Construction, 20% t Transportation, 24% t Consumer Products, 9% t Miscellaneous, 16% u Production u Cost - 4 Million tons (1989) - $1 Per Pound w 6 Aluminum (Continued) u Processing t Electrolytic Processing (1850s to 1870s) w w w t Hall & Heroult Simultaneously Discovered Electrolytic Process For Aluminum t Bayer Process Aluminum (Continued) Charles Martin Hall 1886 u Alumina Dissolved In Fused Cryolite (Natural Fluoride of Al & Na) Na) u Sugar In Water Solution u Alumina/Cryolite Solution Alumina/ Is Good Conductor u Current Maintained Temperature u Separated By Electric Current & Cooled u u Aluminum (Continued) Magnesium u General Paul Louis Heroult u 1886 u Same Process As Hall Except He Added Heat u Heat Not Necessary u Cryolite Is Not Consumed u t Element, Mg t Melts At 1200oF t Boils At 2025 oF t Specific Gravity = 1.74 t Lightest Stable Metal t Silver-White u History t Isolated By Sir Humphry Davy (1808) w Magnesium (Continued) Magnesium (Continued) u Uses u Properties t Malleable & Ductile When Heated t Reactive With Acids t Reacts With Oxygen Above 1472oF u Abundance t 6th Most Abundant Metallic Compound In The World t Found In Carnallite, Dolomite, & Magnesite Carnallite, t “Milk Of Magnesia” t Textiles - Refractory & Insulating Material t Epsom Salt t Cosmetics t Alloys w w w t Pure w 7 Magnesium (Continued) Beryllium u General Similar To Aluminum Process u Molten Magnesium Is Lighter Than Electrolyte u t Element, Be, Melts At 2349oF t Specific Gravity = 1.85 (Lightweight) t Called Glucinium (Sweet Tasting) u History t Discovered By Frederick Wohler (1828) u Uses t High Strength Per Weight t Corrosion Resistance At High Temperature t Space Applications - Structure & Propellant t Nuclear Reactors - Captures Neutrons Titanium u General Niobium Or Columbium u General t Element, Ti t Melts At 3020oF t Specific Gravity = 4.5 t Also Called Menachite u History t Element, Nb t Melts At 4474oF t Specific Gravity = 8.57 t Steel-Gray u History t Discovered By William Gregor (1791) w t Discovered By Charles Hatchett (1801) w u Uses u Uses t Pure Titanium Is Very Brittle When Cold t Aerospace Applications Cobalt u General t Element, Co, Melts At 1495oF t Specific Gravity = 8.9 t Low Strength, Low Ductility, Hardness u History t Discovered By George Brandt (1735) w u Uses t Permanent Magnets - Cobalt Steel t Tool Bits - Tungsten Carbide t Alloying Metal For Stainless Steel t Corrosion Resistance At High Temperature Tantalum u General t Element, Ta t Melts At 5425oF t Specific Gravity = 16.6 u History t Discovered By Baron Jons Jakob Berzelius (1820) w u Uses t Corrosion Resistance, Compatibility, & Reactivity w w w 8 Chromium u General t Element, Cr t Melts At 3375oF t Specific Gravity = 7.2 u History t Discovered By Louis Nicholas Vauquelin (1797) w u Uses t Corrosion Resistance, Compatibility, & Reactivity w w Platinum u General t Element, Pt t Melts At 3222oF t Specific Gravity = 21.45 t Weight & Hardness t Powder Metallurgy u History t Discovered By William Brownrigg (1750) u Uses t Chemically Inert - Surgical & Dental t Jewelry 9 ...
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