power1 - Methods of Producing Power METHODS OF PRODUCING...

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Unformatted text preview: Methods of Producing Power METHODS OF PRODUCING POWER u Traditional Sources t Wind t Water u Steam Engine Combustion Engine u Mechanical Power and its Measurement u Internal Windmills - History u John Revolving Cap - Hallette (1830) Smeaton - Metal (1740s) Lee -Automatic Fantail (1745) u Edmund t Not Used Till 1800s Not u Very Little change from 1650s to 1850s - Typically Wooden Till 1800s u Power - 40 hp (1650s) u Primarily Northern Europe u Gears Revolving Body - End 19th Century Windmills - Research u Antoine Parent (early 1700s) t Force on Sail Proportional to w w w u Bernoulli, MacLaurin, MacLaurin, d’Alembert (Mid 1700s) t Included Rotation of Sail w u Euler & d’Alembert (Mid 1700s) t Shape of Sail 1 Windmill - Research (continued) u Smeaton Smeaton’s Experiments (1750s) (1750s) t Experimental w w t Verified Findings of MacLaurin & Euler u Dutch t Flared Sails t Concave Shape & Warped Surface t Optimum Design Without Theory Windmills - 19th Century u Metal Construction Mills Self-Regulating Device (18301840) u Panemonian t Vertical Shaft - Cone Shaped Vanes t Less Power & Longer Operation Times u Aeolian Mills t Horizontal or Slightly Inclined Shaft t Metal Construction t Variable Angle of Attack t Delamolere - Centrifugal Governor w w Pumps - Crank & Gear u Crank Metal Windmill for Pumping Water (1830) Fixed to Horizontal Shaft t Lift (Water) & Force (Air) Pumps t No Variation in Piston Displacement t Abandoned in Favor of Gears u La Hire Gear u Cogwheels & Crankshaft 2 Wind Pump with La Hire Gear Pumping Mechanism with Cogwheels and Crankshaft Windmills - Modern History (Mid to Late 1900s) Waterwheels - History u Lightweight Materials Gearing u Precision Manufacturing u Highly Efficient Energy Conversion u Electrical Power Generation u Precision u Horizontal Wheel - Greek t Oldest - For Speed u Vertical Wheel - Roman t Newer - For Power u England Became Leader (1800s) t John Smeaton t Powered Pre-Steam Industry u Types t Undershot, Breast, Overshot Waterwheels - Research u Fluid Mechanics (1600s) Hydraulics (1700s) u Parent (Late 1600s) t Speed of Blades is 1/3 Speed of Water u Bernoulli (1727) t Pressure on Blades Proportional to Relative Velocity between Current and Blade Squared u Smeaton (1952 & 1953) & Bossut t Speed of Blades is 2/5 Speed of Water Waterwheels - Research u Charles de Borda (1767) t Speed of Blades is 1/2 Speed of Water t Proportional to Speed of Water (Not Square) u Other Considerations t Diameter t Width to Depth of Blade t Spacing t Angle t Shape 3 Waterwheels - History u Undershot Breast Wheel (Early 19th Century) - Poncelet (1828) t Curved Vanes to Reduce Power Loss t Undershot - 30 % Efficient t Calculated Most Efficient Arrangement u Overshot t Required Large Gradient t Buckets Used Instead of Blades t Utilized Weight of Water & Momentum t Double the Efficiency of Undershot u Breast - Sagebien t Most Universal Design of Era Poncelet’s Wheel (1828) Wooden Overshot Wheel (Early 19th Century) Metal Overshot Wheel (1830s) Sagebien’s Wheel (Middle of 19th Century) 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/12/2011 for the course EGN 3000 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '09 term at University of South Florida - Tampa.

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