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rail1 - Railroads u Tracks RAILROADS u Steam Traction of...

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Unformatted text preview: Railroads u Tracks RAILROADS u Steam Traction of Railroads u Development Railroad Tracks Wooden Tracks u Also u Wooden Rails u Cast-Iron Rails u Wrought Iron & Steel Rails u Rail Size & Capacity u Evolution Of Rails u Joints u Track Gauge Called t Wagonways t Tramroads - Tram Was Originally A Coal Wagon u Built In England As Early As 16th Century t Coal, Ore, & Stone From Mines Or Quarries u First Wagonways t Parallel Lines Of Planks t Greater Speeds, Rough Surface u Crossties u Wooden Modern Rails u First Cast-Iron Rails t British Foundry (1767) u Toothed Rail t Patent - British Coal Miner (1811) t Rack & Pinion On Third Rail t Still Used - Pikes Peak & Swiss Mountains u Modern Rails t Evolved From Edge Rails in Northern England w w Introduced Tracks Faced With Iron Strips Modern Rails (Continued) u Prototype t Flat-Footed “T” Rail w w t Stands On Base Wider Than Head Of “T” w w u Bridge Rail t Inverted “U” Shape t Longitudinal Timbers t Great Western Railway - England Till 1892 1 Modern Rails (Continued) u Bullhead Rail - Also Called Double-Headed t Evolved From “I” Shaped Rail From 1835 t Thicker, Wider Head Than “I” Rail t Also Called Double-Headed Rail w Wrought-Iron & Steel Rails u Wrought-Iron Rails t Introduced In England In 1820s u Steel Rails t Manufactured In US in 1865 u Transverse Fissures Inside t Controlled Cooling & Inspection t Hardened Ends Rail Size & Capacity u Early Evolution Of Rail Shapes Railroads t 40 lb/yd, 3 ft lb/yd, u Early 20th Century t 60 lb/yd, 30 ft lb/yd, u 1930s t 100 to 130 lb/yd, 40 ft lb/yd, u Today t 152 to 155 lb/yd, 45 to 60 ft lb/yd, Evolution Of Rail Shapes Joints u Problems t Joint Is Weak Spot - Lengthen Rail t Expansion & Contraction - Buckling u Butt Welded Joints - Up To 0.25 miles u Bars Bolted To Sides - Stevens u Wider Tie Plates u Anticreepers 2 Gauge u Distance Gauge (continued) Between Inner Edges t Measured 0.626” Below Head u Standard u Third Rail ? & South America - 66 inches u Spain & Portugal - 66 inches u Former Soviet Union - 60 inches u Ireland - 64 inches u South Africa & Japan - 42 inches u India - 66 inches u Australia - Various Gauges - 56.5” u Central t US, Canada, GB, Mexico, Sweden, Europe u Standard - Speculation t From Early Tramroads t Accommodate Wagons With Axle Length = 60” t Head Width - 1.75” On Early Rails u Narrow Gauge In US - 3 ft t Fills & Clearances, Lighter Rails, Tighter Turns t 917 miles In US (1871) Steam Traction u Early Developments t Trevithick , Rack Locomotive, Puffing Billy, Walking Trevithick, Locomotive, Stephenson u Early Railroad Lines & Companies u Rainhill Competition u Railroads In France u Railroads In United States u Evolution of Locomotive u Increased Speed u Advancements Trevithick’s Attempts Richard Trevithick Pioneer Of All Locomotive Builders u 5 Ton Locomotive (1804) u u t Pulled 20 Tons @ 5 mph t Cylinder w w u u Fractured Cast-Iron Rails 8 Ton Locomotive (1808) t 12 mph Rack Locomotives John Blenkinsop (1811) Cogwheel & Rack u Advantages u Puffing Billy u u t Heavier Load t Steeper Grade u u t Concerned With Weight/Pull Ratio u u Colliery Railways t Middleton - Leads (1812) t Coxloge - Tyne (1813) Double-Acting Cylinders William Hedley (1813) Too Heavy For Rails Converted to 8 Wheels t 1815 u Converted Back to 4 Wheels t 1830 3 Walking Locomotive Stephenson’s Blucher (1814,1815) u George Stephenson u Two Vertical Cylinders u Pulled 30 tons @ 4 mph u Innovations t Worked In Colliery t 8” diameter, 24” Stroke Brunton Of Butterly u Built In 1812 u Tried to Solve Weight/Pull Problem u t 8 Times Weight, 2/900 Grade t Flanged Wheels t Connecting Rod u Patent (1815) t Suspension Using Pistons & Steam Pres . On Pillow Blocks Pres. Early Railroad Lines & Companies u Stockton - Darlington t Opened 1821 t 12 miles Long t Chief Engineer w t Leader In Production w u Manchester - Liverpool t Major Traffic w w t Railway w w t Reduced Time Ÿ w w w Ÿ t Passengers w w t First Railroad Bridge t 21 Stationary Engines w Rainhill Competition (1829) u 500 t Pull 3 Times Weight, 10 mph, 15 miles u Stephenson’s u u George & Robert Two Inclined Cylinders Rocket t 4.25 tons, Pulled 12.75 tons, Averaged 13.8 mph, Maximum 24.1 mph, Light Load 31 mph u John Braithwaite’s Novelty t 7.7 tons, 13.8 mph, Broke Down u Timothy Hackworth’s Sans Pareil t 4.77 tons, 16 mph, Broke Down u Two Stephenson’s Rocket Pounds Plus Cost Of Engine u Conditions Other Entries Science Museum London t 6” Bore, 12” Stroke 50” Diameter Front Wheel u Fire Tube Boiler u t 25 Copper Tubes t 3” Diameter u Exhaust Steam Injected At Base Of Smokestack t Advantage ? 4 Railways In France Considerably Behind Great Britain Owners In France Pushed Development u Saint-Etienne to Andrezieux (1828) Marc Seguin u Lagged u Mine t 9.5 miles t Horses, Carriages, & Cables u Saint-Etienne to Lyon (1832) t United Loire & Rhone t Steam, Horses, & Cables t Included Tunnel (1st) & Two Bridges t 2 hours, 35 minutes (40 miles) First Builder Of Suspension Bridges u Built Fire-Tube Boiler For Steam Boat u t Hot Gases From Firebox Patent - 1828 u Copy Of Stephenson’s ? u Marc Seguin Bought Engines From Stephenson & Copied Design u Added Fan & Bellows u t Increased Draft t Shorter Smokestack t 36 minutes To Build Up Pressure u u Evolution Of Locomotive u Rocket t Tubular Boiler, Separate Firebox, Direct Drive Without Gears, Better Steam Distribution u Vertical Cylinders Unstable At High Speeds cylinder Inside Boiler u Increased Number Of Tubes u Horizontal 4.5 tons Pulled 15 tons Planet Locomotive Stephensons (1832) u Built For LiverpoolManchester Railroad u 8 tons u Lancaster Matthias Baldwin (1834) Built For CharlestonHamburg Railroad u Front Swiveling Truck u u 5 Railroads In United States First Locomotive Built In US u Started Same Time As In England & France u United States Was Industrially Underdeveloped t 13,000,000 People, 5 Cities Greater Than 25,000 u Cost Per Mile t 1/4 Of European t 1/7 Of British u u u Miles Peter Cooper (1830) Built For Baltimore & Ohio Railroad t 23 miles By 1830 t 2818 miles By 1840 t Erie Canal Opened In 1825 Best Friend 1830 u Built By Westpoint Foundry Association u Built For South Carolina Railroad u Grasshopper 1834 Built By Cullingham & Winans u Built For Baltimore & Ohio Railroad u u 6 ...
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