13 - o FOXP2 gene identical in Neandertals and modern...

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Brain Form 3 major functions of human brain: o R-complex: Evolutionary oldest Basic self-preservation functions o Limbic system: Basic mammalian brain function Controls emotions o Neocortex: Most recently evolved Concerned w/ higher though: perception, etc. Broca’s area Other Biological Differences Spinal column o Nariokotome/ Turkana Bay Indicates non-modern nerves for innervating intercoastal muscles Likely could not move rib cage in breathing o Hypoglossal canal Transmits a nerve that innervates the tongue Small in apes, australopithecines and H. habilis Large in H. sapiens o Hyoid bone 1 st found in H. neandertalensis
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o Indirect evidence of Neandertal speech from symbol, burial ritual Genetic Evidence Mid 1990s, isolated so-called language gene o FOXP2 version has 2 point mutations that are fixed in humans
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Unformatted text preview: o FOXP2 gene identical in Neandertals and modern humans Neandertals could almost certainly speak like we do Why Evolve Language? Advantageous adaptation o Allowed Homo genus to expand out of Africa o Allowed Homo genus to succeed in cold and poor environments Key knowledge passed around o Honestly, no idea why language evolved Diversity 2 sources of human variation: o Environmental Climate and habitat o Genetic Genes inherited from parents o Example: body weight Environment = readily available food, cultural standards of beauty Genetic = genes can predispose someone to be heavier Variation within a group (intra-pop.) o Example: height of NBA players Variation among groups (inter-pop.) o Example: height of NBA players and jockeys...
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13 - o FOXP2 gene identical in Neandertals and modern...

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