P11_S&C_Herodotus

P11_S&C_Herodotus - Herodotus Click to edit Master...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 6/14/11 Herodotus
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6/14/11
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6/14/11 Herodotus
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6/14/11
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6/14/11
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6/14/11 Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (Bodrum)
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6/14/11
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6/14/11
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6/14/11 Herodotus the father of history Herodotus Histories Earliest Prose Historiography Greatest Influence: Homer
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6/14/11 Historical imagination: Henry Immerwahr: “The function of the historical imagination consists in the preservation of important aspects of the past as these are reflected in older traditions, which are formed into a new and living tradition; this is done by selection emphasis, and combination, on the basis of certain abstract notions which give history its unity. The historian reconstructs the past by using all the aspects of the imagination except
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6/14/11 Major Themes and Motifs In Herodotus 1) Wise advisor/warner figure and ruler who doesn’t listen. Gyges-Candaules Solon-Croesus Sandanis-Croesus Croesus-Cyrus Tomyris –Cyrus (?)
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6/14/11 2) Poverty/poor land, (hardy soldiers, victory), associated at times with lower level of culture and promiscuous sexual behavior (e.g. Massagetae 1. 216, p. 94) vs. wealth/fertile, lush territory (enervated soldiers, defeat). Spartans vs. Tegeans (?) Croesus (Lydians) vs. Cyrus (Persians) Cyrus (Persians) vs. Tomyris
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6/14/11 3) Misinterpretation of ambiguous oracles leading to disaster. Spartans vs. Tegeans Croesus vs. Cyrus
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6/14/11 4) Clever interpretation of obscure metaphorical oracles leading to military victory. Pisistratus correctly interprets obscure oracle and launches timely attack that leads to his assumption of power as tyrant in Athens for the third time. Lichas’ correct interpretation leads to discovery of Orestes remains and ultimately Sparta’s victory over Tegeans.
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6/14/11 5) Transgressions or crimes followed by tisis (retributive justice). Mythological abduction tales in proem (Io, Europa, Medea, Helen). Gyges murder of Candaules and usurpation of throne => Croesus’ punishment (5 generations later). Astyages’ treatment of daughter, grandson (future ruler Cyrus), and
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6/14/11 7) Violating natural boundaries, rivers, etc. and subsequent disaster (often combined with hybristic , impious behavior). Croesus crosses the Halys and is defeated by Cyrus. Cyrus loses favorite (sacred!) horse in Gyndes and punishes river (clearly hybristic act). Cyrus, desiring to seize the territory of the Massagetae, crosses the Araxes.
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7cont.) Related to this is the motive of greed ( pleonexia ) the somewhat irrational and insatiable desire to possess more. Croesus desire to possess to conquer Persia (cf. 1. 73, p. 33). Cyrus, convinced of his superhuman
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P11_S&C_Herodotus - Herodotus Click to edit Master...

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