Final Exam - Study Guide GEOG 105

Final Exam - Study Guide GEOG 105 - Geography 105 –...

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Unformatted text preview: Geography 105 – The Digital Earth Final Exam Review Your final exam is a check to see if you understood the basic constructs of the class and the foundations of a digital earth. In such the questions will be mostly general. For some of you, the answers may seem too simple. (example: what is scale?) – but they are all important for you to understand. I will create questions from the following concepts. I may re ­word the questions, ask them in different manners but I will not ask questions not contained in the following concepts. For example: you won’t see any reference below to the categories of projections: conformal, equidistant, equal ­area and azimuthal – so I won’t be asking questions about that concept. The same for knowing the types of classification schemes for a choropleth map – or what the 4 types of image resolution (spatial, temporal, spectral and radiometric) are. The bottom line  ­ if you know the following concepts, you’ll know what is important in this class. The Digital Earth Can you write in your own words what this class was about? What are the components of a “digital earth? Can you give examples of the basic components of a “digital earth” that were discussed, namely cartography/visualization, geodesy, GPS, remote sensing, aerial photography, and GIS? Shape of the Earth, Projections, Spatial Data Models, Measurements & Scale When locating something spatially, the x,y coordinates are measured within some defined system. Know the basic elements of spherical and planar coordinate systems. What units are used to measure both? What about the spacing of these units on the x and y axes? Know the 3 geometric shapes upon which most projections are based. Know the 4 spatial properties that can be distorted when a spherical earth representation is converted to a flat display (i.e. a projection). What is meant by the scale of a map? Give examples of a large & small scale map. Understand the difference between the precision of a map’s coordinates and those coordinates accuracy. What is a data model? Can you list the 2 used this semester to display non ­3D data? How does each store spatial features? Representing Elevation and other 3 D GIS Models What two data models can store elevation data (or any 3D data for that matter)? List 2 applications you used that displayed spatial data in a 3 ­D perspective? How is interpolation used to create a 3 ­D surface from given point values? Location based Services What is a “location ­based service”? Geodesy How does surveying and GPS relate to the concept of “geodesy”? (HINT: Look at the definition of geodesy as a starting point) Surveying Did manual surveying make use of triangulation or trilateration? Before electronic instruments, what limited how far one could survey from a given location? GPS What does GPS do (i.e. what does it give the user)? What does the acronym stand for? What are the 3 components of GPS? How does GPS work (i.e. what is the basic physics equation it is based on). What are some of the limitation of GPS? Energy and Color What are 2 primary models of decribing color? How are they different? Energy can be measured at various “wavelengths” – which equate to colors or non ­visible types of energy. How is it that we can “see” these non ­visible wavelengths using ArcMap? Other than visible color images, what are the names of some of the other bands of energy? Remote Sensing and Aerial Photography How is the scale of an image of earth determined? (refer to the eye/camera PPT slide) What does off ­nadir mean? What can you measure in an image taken off ­nadir that you can’t in an orthogonal one? When we say that an image has a “resolution” of 10 feet, what does that mean? GIS and Cartography What is GIS? How is it just different than creating a map? Why, when creating a map, do we classify spatial data for polygons (like the appx. 3200 counties of the U.S.) into a smaller number of categories? What is the basic name (given by the company ESRI) to most of the files you drew with ArcMap this semester? ...
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2011 for the course GEOG 105 taught by Professor Shirley during the Fall '10 term at South Carolina.

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