Lecture Guide Chapter02

Lecture Guide Chapter02 - • Groups • Periods • Metals...

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Chapter 2 1/16/2008 THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE Dr. Porter Lecture Guide MATTER Define - solid,liquid,gas mass is constant, weight includes the effect of gravity All matter is composed of elements elements cannot be broken down and retain their physical and chemical characteristics 92 naturally occurring elements most abundant in life: trace elements: I, Fe, Zn,Cu, Co, Mo, Mn,Se, additionally Si, Al found abundant in earth’s crust Atoms contain subatomic particles Proton Neutron Electron Arranged in a central nucleus with orbiting electrons 3-D space occupied by the electron is an orbital Electrons have varying levels of energy relative to distance from nucleus and represented as electron shells – each shell has a set number of orbitals Electron configuration determines chemical properties Subatomic Particles Electron Shells Periodic Table of the Elements
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Unformatted text preview: • Groups • Periods • Metals • Nonmetals • Noble gases • Valence electrons • Rule of Eight • Atomic Number • Mass Number (Atomic Weight) • Isotopes • Valence Number or Oxidation Number • 1 st shell – 1 orbital, 2e (1s) • 2 nd shell – 2 orbitals, 2s, 2p (s 2e and p 6e) Chemical Bonds • Outer shell electrons interact to form bonds • Transfer or Share electrons to fill outer valence shell • Electronegativity differences between atom determines electron attraction Ionic Bond – Ionic Compounds • Weak bond • Elements in ratio – Salt crystals • Break ionic bonds forming – Cation – Anion – Give examples of ionic compounds, cations, anions Covalent Bonds – • Strong bonds • Nonpolar Covalent bond – • Polar Covalent bond – • Give examples of molecules with polar and nonpolar covalent bonds....
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This note was uploaded on 06/14/2011 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Chattergee during the Fall '06 term at South Carolina.

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Lecture Guide Chapter02 - • Groups • Periods • Metals...

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