BIO101Chapter4&5

BIO101Chapter4&5 - BIOL 101 Chapter 4 Carbon and...

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1 BIOL 101 Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Chapter 4 I.000 Inorganic vs. organic molecules Inorganic – without carbons (some compounds with a single carbon can be classified as inorganic) o Examples – NaCl (salts), H 2 O, HCl (hydrochloric acid), iron, Organic – o with carbons o small molecules and macromolecules o Carbon skeleton – chains or ring structures o Each carbon has four bonds o Isomers – share the same molecular formula but differ in arrangement of atoms (structural, geometric, enantiomers) Glucose and fructose trans-fats L-lysine o Examples: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, ATP II. Functional groups Hydroxyl (alcohols) ( - OH) found in sugars Carboxyl group ( - COOH) carboxylic acid found in fatty acids, amino acids Amino group ( - NH 2 ) found in amino acids Phosphate ( PO 4 -3 ) O ll - O- P – O - l O - Methyl -CH 3 Chapter 5 III. Large molecules made up of smaller units bonded together Examples Monomers polymers Monosaccharides disaccharidespolysaccharides Amino acids polypeptides proteins Chemical reactions condensation (dehydration) removes a water molecule – OH from one and H from another join with a bond hydrolysis water added and breaks a bond
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BIO101Chapter4&5 - BIOL 101 Chapter 4 Carbon and...

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