Chapter 11 Cell Communication

Chapter 11 Cell Communication - Cyclic AMP by adenylyl...

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Chapter 11 Cell Communication Cell signaling Signal Transduction o Process by which a signal on a cell surface is transmitted across to cell Chemicals released Cell junctions to communicate Surface receptors to identify and communicate by cell-cell recognition Sending a Signal Local signaling Paracrine o Cytokines o Growth factors Synaptic o Neurotransmitters Long distance signalling Hormones Chemicals released into vascular system of animals and plants Receiving a signal 1)Reception – receive signal o Integral protein in cell membrane Ligand binding (chemical to receptor) o linked to a membrane 2)Transduction binding signal molecule changes receptor protein and initiates transduction and coverts chemical signal to a form than can bring about a cellular response o One step or more often a pathway – series of steps o Second messenger system Cascade One step activates another o Types of second messengers
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Unformatted text preview: Cyclic AMP by adenylyl cyclase Calcium as second messenger IP3 and DAG as second messengers to release calcium o Protein phosphatases o 3)Response Trigger specific cellular response Membrane receptors: 1) G protein-coupled receptor a. switch on and off b. G from GTP 2) receptor tyrosine kinase a. regulate enzyme activity 3) ion channel receptor a. ligand gated channel Intracellular receptors (cytoplasm or nuclear) 1) transcription factor to turn on gene Types of Responses o Plasma membrane receptors o Enzyme activation o Contract or relax o secretion o ion movement (depolarization, hyperpolarization) o Nuclear receptor o mitosis o protein synthesis via gene activation o termination of signal o enzyme to break down chemical o reuptake o cells regulate receptors for chemicals upregulate downregulate o apoptosis...
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Chapter 11 Cell Communication - Cyclic AMP by adenylyl...

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