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Exam 3 Study Material

Exam 3 Study Material - Objectives for Biology 101 Exam#3...

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Objectives for Biology 101 Exam #3 Identify the following individuals’ contributions to biology and describe the organism, model, technique,or theory used in their research: Gregor Mendel Watson and Crick Chargaff Rosalind Franklin Thomas Hunt Morgan Avery Hershey and Chase What are the advantages, disadvantages, limitations to using each of the following models for studying genetics and inheritance: garden pea, Drosophila, humans, bacteria, viruses Define the following terms genetics inheritance true- breeding P, F1, F2 generations gene Punnett square genotype Phenotype Homozygous dominant test cross autosome & sex chromosomes homozygous recessive Heterozygous Incomplete dominance Complete dominance Codominance Multiple alleles Pleiotropy Polygenic inheritance monohybrid and dihybrid cross Explain Mendel’s laws: Law of Segregation Law of Independent assortment What is the Chromosome Theory of Inheritance? Be able to determine genotypes using Mendelian Inheritance in Humans when given phenotypes, dominant and recessive traits. Be able to determine the possible gametes and determine the genotypic and phenotypic percentage or ratio of the offspring (i.e. results from a Punnett square). Identify the following inheritable human disorders as autosomal recessive or dominant and give a short description of the disorder (consider how the gene altered presents the symptoms) Cystic fibrosis Sickle Cell Disease PKU Albinism Huntington’s disease What factors may contribute to a human disease classified as a multifactorial disorder? Give examples. Define and describe how each of the following may be used to determine genetic disorders and which specific disorders can be detected: Karyotyping Amniocentesis Chorionic villi sampling Biochemical screening in newborns Define or describe : Chromosomes Chromatin sister chromatids histones genes locus(loci) Nucleic acids nucleotides purines pyrimidines nucleosomes Linked genes Sex linked gene Recombinants (how are they produced in normal inheritance and how does the spacing of genes on a chromosome affect distribution of the traits in offspring) Be able to identify alteration in chromosome structure as deletion, duplication, inversion, or translocation Identify the following as sex linked disorder, chromosome number disorders (trisomy or monosomy), chromosome structure disorder, and give a general description of the disorder. Identify the abnormal chromosome. Hemophilia Down’s Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Color Blindness Triplo X Turner Syndrome Where are extranuclear genes in eukaryotes? Describe how Griffith transformed bacteria. Describe Hershey and Chase’s experiment with E.coli and T2 bacteriophage. Why label with S or P? Compare semiconservative and conservative replication of DNA.
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