Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Gene sequence...

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Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Gene – sequence of nitrogenous bases on DNA gives information to make a protein DNA mRNA polypeptide/protein Transcription copy genetic information Translation Interpret the information to synthesize the protein Scientific Studies to support one gene, one protein hypothesis: Use knowledge of inherited disorders of enzymes Inborn errors of metabolism Archibald Garrod (1909) British physician Abnormal gene, enzyme missing to metabolize a compound Disorder alkaptonuria – black urine Beadle and Tatum 1930s Research to study genes and enzymes using Bread mold, Neurospora crassa Used x rays to cause mutations Looked for surviving mutants that differed from the wildtype mold in nutritional needs Minimal medium of agar with inorganic salts Wildtype can make amino acids, so yeast don’t need them added to media to survive Mutation caused yeast to be unable to make certain amino acids Nonessential amino acids became essential Identified mutants that needed additional nutrients Could not synthesize needed compound but could survive if supplemented with 20 amino acids and a few additional nutrients Isolated each mutant Identified the missing enzyme based on nutrient requirement
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Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Gene sequence...

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