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Essentials of Geology (10th Edition)

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Minerals: Building Blocks of Rocks begins by formally defining a mineral followed by an explanation of the difference between a mineral and a rock. Mineral composition is discussed along with atomic structure, which includes an explanation of elements, atoms, compounds, ions, and atomic bonding. Also investigated are isotopes and radioactivity. Following descriptions of the properties used in mineral identification, the silicate and nonsilicate mineral groups are examined. The chapter concludes with a discussion of mineral resources, reserves, and ores. Learning Objectives After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to: List the definitive characteristics that qualify certain Earth materials as minerals. Explain the difference between a mineral and a rock. Discuss the basic concepts of atomic structure as it relates to minerals. Compare and contrast the different types of chemical bonding. Explain what an isotope is and how it relates to radioactive decay. List and discuss in some detail the various physical properties of minerals. Explain the structure and importance of silicate minerals. List the common rock-forming silicate minerals and briefly discuss their physical properties. List other mineral groups and give an example of the important nonsilicate minerals. List the economic use of some nonsilicate minerals. Distinguish between mineral resources, reserves, and ores. Chapter Outline ___________________________________________________________________ I. Minerals: The building blocks of rocks A. Mineral: definition 1. Naturally occurring 2. Inorganic 3. Solid 4. Orderly internal structure 5. Definite chemical structure B. Rock: a solid, natural mass of mineral, or mineral-like, matter II. Composition of minerals A. Elements 1. Basic building blocks of minerals 2. Over 100 are known (92 naturally occurring) B. Atoms 1.
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Ch02 Outline - Chapter Minerals Building Blocks of Rocks 2...

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