Ch03 Outline

Essentials of Geology (10th Edition)

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Igneous Rocks begins with a discussion of the crystallization of magma, followed by an examination of igneous rock textures and compositions. The discussion of igneous rock compositions includes examinations of Bowen’s reaction series, magmatic differentiation, assimilation, and magma mixing. Granitic, andesitic, basaltic, and pyroclastic rocks are presented in detail. The chapter closes with a review of mineral resources and igneous processes. Learning Objectives After reading, studying, and discussing the chapter, students should be able to: Describe how igneous rocks form. Explain the difference between magma and lava. List the two criteria that are used to classify igneous rocks. Describe how the rate of cooling of magma influences the crystal size of igneous rocks. Relate the mineral makeup of an igneous rock to Bowen’s reaction series. Describe the characteristics of basaltic and granitic rocks. Explain how economic deposits of gold, silver, and many other metals form. Chapter Outline ___________________________________________________________________ I. Magma: The parent material of igneous rocks A. Igneous rocks form as molten rock cools and solidifies B. General characteristics of magma 1. Parent material of igneous rocks 2. Forms by a process called partial melting inside the Earth 3. Magma that reaches the surface is called lava 4. Rocks formed from magma at the surface are classified as extrusive, or volcanic rocks 5. Rocks formed from magma that crystallizes at depth are termed intrusive, or plutonic C. The nature of magma 1. Completely or partly molten material that cools and solidifies to form igneous rock 2. Consists of three parts: a.A liquid portion, called melt, composed of mobile ions b.Solids, if any, are silicate minerals that have already crystallized from the melt c.Volatiles, gaseous components dissolved within the melt 1.Water vapor (H 2 O) 2.Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 3.Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) D. Crystallization of magma 1. Generates various silicate minerals 2. Cooling results in the ions arranging into orderly patterns and various minerals 3. Size and arrangement of the mineral grains give an igneous rock its texture 4. Igneous rocks are most often classified by their a.Texture, and b.Mineral composition Chapter 3 Igneous Rocks
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Ch03 Outline - Chapter Igneous Rocks 3 Igneous Rocks begins...

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