Belly of the Beast

Belly of the Beast - from the accretion disk large amounts...

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Belly of the Beast If redshift is due to expansion, quasars are very distant objects very small physically, but emit 100x more energy than galaxies Redshift is due to the expansion of space, not the motion through space o highest known redshift is 6.4 or 96% the speed of light apparent brightness of some quasars varies dramatically over time o the observed variability of apparent brightness gives you an upper limit for brightness o If the quasar is 1ly across, than it would take 1 year of it to vary even if intrinsic variation is instantaneous o thus, quasars are physically very small How is there so much energy in such a small area? o chemical or nuclear energy is not physically possible, not enough volume o matter, anti-matter annihilation – would have other observable effects o concluded that there are supermassive black holes in the center of galaxies are swallowing large amounts of matter as matter falls into the black hole friction causes it to give off large amounts of energy –more than 10x as effective as nuclear energy
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Unformatted text preview: from the accretion disk large amounts of energy are being released jets of particles shoot out perpendicular to the accretion disk due to magnetic fields variable accretion rate produces the observed brightness variations o high quality images and spectra reveal that they are at the centers of galaxies have the same spectra as many other galaxies can see the tidal effects on other galaxies o the most luminous quasars are extremely distant denizens of the young universe use up most of the material around it some nearby ones may have been quasars in the distant past o Speed of gas in quasars and active nuclei suggests the presence of a supermassive BH but other explanations are possible stars very close to the centers of galaxies found to be moving very rapidly, must be under the influence of gravity from a supermassive BH • could also find a rapidly moving disk of gas...
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