Test 2 Review - MIBO
3500
Unit
2
 Test
Review
...

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Unformatted text preview: MIBO
3500
Unit
2
 Test
Review
 
 CH.
8­
Sanitation
 Used
on
objects:
 
 Sterilization‐
complete
removal
of
all
living
cells,
spores,
everything
 
 
 Disinfection‐
removal
of
microbes
that
cause
disease,
substantial
reduction
 
 in
microbe
population
 
 
 Sanitation­
microbial
population
reduced
to
levels
considered
safe
by
heath
 
 standards
 
 Used
on
living
tissue:
 
 Antisepsis­
destruction
or
inhibition
of
microorganisms
on
a
living
tissue,
 
 prevention
of
infection
(sepsis),
reduces
microbe
population,
not
cidal
 
 
 1. Cidal
vs.
Static
 • Cidal‐
living
cells
destroyed,
causing
death
and
removed
 i. Sterilization‐
100%
destroyed
 ii. Antisepsis‐
*wont
kill
endospores,
not
harmful
to
living
cells
 iii. Dry
heat
(baking)
 iv. Ionizing
(gamma,
x‐ray,
cathode)
radiation
 v. Phenolics‐
destroys
proteins
and
membranes
 vi. Alcohols‐
destroys
proteins
and
membranes,
not
good
against
 endospores
 vii. Halogens
(Cl
and
I)
 viii. Aldehydes‐
DNA
deactivation
 ix. Ethylene
Oxide
(gas)‐
gas
combines
with
cell
proteins
 • Static‐
inhibits
growth,
bacteria
still
present
though
 i. Pasteurization‐
Heat
applied
to
foods/beverages
to
prevent
 spoilage
by
bacterial
growth
 ii. Disinfection‐
chemicals
used
on
objects,
harmful
to
living
cells
 iii. Sanitation‐
reduction
to
a
specified
level
of
acceptable/safe
 public
health
standard

 iv. Preservation‐
using
preservatives
to
delay
food
product
 spoilage
by
preventing
bacterial
growth
(could
be
cidal
or
 static)
 v. Filtration‐
some
small
things
can
fit
through
the
filter
 vi. Moist
heat
(boiling)‐
wont
kill
endospores
 vii. Steam
heat
(autoclave)‐
wont
kill
endospores
 viii. Refrigeration
and
freezing‐
inhibits
growth
 ix. UV
radiation‐
wont
kill
endospores
 x. Quats‐
destroys
membranes
and
proteins
but
not
endospores
 
 2. Factors
affecting
successful
antimicrobial
treatment
 • Population
size‐
the
more
cells,
the
longer
it
take
to
kill
the
all
 • Presence
of
resistant
structures‐
endospores,
mycolic
acids
 • Concentration
and
intensity‐
higher
concen.
=
quicker
death
 • Contact/exposure
time‐
longer
exposure
=
more
death
 • Temperature
of
treatment‐
high
temps
speed
up
reactions
(more
 death)
 • pH
of
sample‐
lower
pH
environment
=
faster
death
 • presence
of
organic
matter‐
Chemicals
adsorb
to
organic
matter,
 blocking
action
on
microbes
 
 
 CH.
10­
Catabolism
 1. Major
energy
generation
pathways
 • Aerobic
Respiration
 o Glycolysis
 Embden‐Meyerhof
pathway
 • Glucose

2
pyruvates
 • 2
net
ATP
made,
2
NADH
made
 • 2
ATPs
made/glucose
 Entner‐Doudoroff
Pathway

(less
common,
not
Euk)
 • Glucose

2
pyruvates
 • 1
net
ATP
made,
1
NADH
made
 o Transition
 Pyruvate

acetyl
CoA
 1
NADH
made/pyruvate
 o TCA/Krebs/Citric
Acid
cycle

 Acetyl
CoA

citrate
 3
NADH/
1
GTP/
1
FADH2
per
Acetyl
CoA
 2
ATPs
made/glucose
 o Oxidative
phosphorylation/ETC
 Uses
ETC
to
make
proton
gradient
t
drive
ATP
synthase
 1
NADH
make
2.5
ATP
 1
FADH2
makes
1.5
ATP
 O2
is
final
electron
acceptor
at
end
of
chain
 28
ATPs
made/glucose
 • Anaerobic
Respiration
 o Same
as
aerobic
until
ETC
 o Terminal
electron
acceptor

=inorganic
(N
or
S),
not
O2
 • Fermentation
 o Still
have
glycolysis

still
make
NADH
and
oxidize
it
back
to
 NAD+
 o Pyruvate
is
made
into
other
compounds

 o ATP
made
via
substrate
level
phosphorylation
(ADP
ATP)
 o Organic
compound
is
final
e‐
acceptor
 
 
 2. Phosphorylation
of
ATP
 • Substrate
level
 o ADP
+
phosphorylated
substrate
ATP
+
de‐phosphorylated
 product
 o Energy
for
new
bond
comes
from
breaking
the
old
PO4‐
–

 substrate
bond
 o Occurs
during:
 Aerobic/anaerobic
respiration
&
fermentation
(i.e.
 glycolysis)
 Aerobic/anaerobic
respiration
only
(i.e.
TCA
cycle’s
 GTP
reaction)
 o “intermediate
ATP
making
before
ETC”
 • Oxidative
 o Involves
the
electron
transport
chain
&
ATP
synthase
 o ATP
synthase
shuttles
H+
into
cell
via
Proton
Motive
Force
 (PMF)
and
couples
ADP
and
Pi
(inorganic
PO4‐
)
 o Energy
carriers
are
housed
within
the
cytoplasmic
membrane
 of
prokaryotes
(mitochondrial
membrane
in
eukaryotes).
H+
 move
to
periplasmic
space
 • Oxygenic
photophosphorylation
 o Have
2
photosystems
like
eukaryotes:
cyclic
&
non‐cyclic
=
 electron
transport
chains
 o Initial
electrons
come
from
chlorophyll
a
molecules
excited
by
 light
 o PMF
+
ATP
synthase
=
photophosphorlyation
of
ADP
to
ATP
 o O2
used
as
terminal
electron
acceptor
=
oxygenic
 photophosphorylation
(producing
O2)
 • Anoxygenic
photophosphorylation
 o Occurs
in
Purple
and
Green
Bacteria
 o Light
excites
bacteriochlorophyll
a
 o Only
a
cyclic
type
photosystem
is
present
 o Do
not
produce
O2
 o PMF
+
ATP
synthase
=
photophosphorlyation
of
ADP
to
ATP
 3. ATP
Yields
 • Eukaryotes
aerobic:
32
ATP
 • Prokaryotes
aerobic:
more
than
eukaryotes.
Eukaryotes
have
expend
 some
of
their
ATP/glucose
to
shuttle
ATP
from
mitochondrial
matrix
 to
the
cytoplasm
for
use
whereas
prokaryotes
do
not
(already
in
 cytoplasm)
 • Prokaryotes
anaerobic:
less
ATP
than
aerobic
because
O2
is
a
more
 efficient
e‐
acceptor
(meaning
more
ATP
made)
than
nitrates
(that
 anaerobes
use)
 • Prokaryotes
fermenting:
less
ATP.
No
oxidative
phosphorylation.
No
 O2
acceptors
 
 • • • • • 
 Chemoorganoheterotrophs:
use
regular
respiration
 Chemolithoautotrophs:

 • Electrons
for
the
electron
transport
chain
are
obtained
from
 inorganic
compounds
instead
of
organics
(much
less
energy
 available
in
inorganic
compounds)
 • Much
less
NADH
produced
and
less
ATP
produced
than
by
 chemoorganotrophs
which
oxidize
glucose
 • Results
in
longer
times
to
generate
enough
PMF
to
drive
ATP
 synthesis
&
much
longer
generation
times
than
 chemoorganotrophs
 
 4. Catabolism
of
molecules
other
than
glucose
 • Glycolysis:
glucose
to
pyruvate
(2)
 • Transition:
2
pyruvate
to
2
Acetyl
CoA
 • TCA:
Acetyl
CoA
to
Citrate,
then
back
around
 • ETC:
NADH
to
NAD+,
Succinate
to
Fumerate,
O2
to
H2O,
NO3
to
NO2
 (prokaryotes)
 • Pentose
phosphate
shunt:
begins
with
E‐M
or
E‐N
intermediates
and
 goes
to
pyruvate.
Using
those
intermediates
for
this
pathways
lowers
 theoretical
max
ATP
yield
 
 5. Photophosphorylation
 • Oxygenic
photophosphorylation
 • Have
2
photosystems
like
eukaryotes:
cyclic
(P700)
&
non‐ cyclic
(P680)
=
electron
transport
chains
 • Initial
electrons
come
from
chlorophyll
a
molecules
excited
 by
light
 • Proton
Motive
Force
+
ATP
synthase
=
photophosphorlyation
 of
ADP
to
ATP
 • O2
used
as
terminal
electron
acceptor
=
oxygenic
 photophosphorylation
(producing
O2)
 • Anoxygenic
photophosphorylation
 • Occurs
in
Purple
and
Green
Bacteria
 • Light
excites
bacteriochlorophyll
a
 • Only
one,
cyclic
type
photosystem
is
present
 • Do
not
use
H2O
as
donor,
and
do
not
produce
O2
 • PMF
+
ATP
synthase
=
photophosphorlyation
of
ADP
to
ATP
 
 • • 
 Embden
Myerhoff:
makes
2
ATP/glucose.
 Entner
Meyerhoff:
makes
1
ATP/glucose.

 Transition:
no
direct
ATP
made,
but
contributes
to
Ox
Phos
 TCA
cycle:
makes
2
ATP/glucose
 *ETC:
makes
28
ATP/glucose
 • *all
steps
contribute
NADH
for
ox.
Phos.
 CH.
11
Anabolism
 1. Macromolecule
synthesis
 • Amino
Acids
synthesis
uses
intermediates
form
Glycolysis,
TCA
cycle,
 pentose
phosphate
shunt,
and
transtion
step
to
make
amino
acids
 • Lipid
synthesis:
Glycolysis
(glycerol
phosphate)
and
transition
steps
 (acetyl
CoA)
serve
as
precursor
for
lipid
synthesis
 • Nucleotide
synthesis
 o Purines

stem
from
amino
acids
produced
from
glycolysis
 intermediates
 o Pyrimidines
stem
from
amino
acids
produced
in
the
TCA
 cycle
 o Riboses
&
deoxyriboses
are
synthesized
by
the
pentose
 phosphate
shunt
 • Gluconeogenesis:

 o Reversal
of
glycolysis
 o Pyruvate
used
to
make
glucose.
Glucose
can
be
made
into
 more
complex
polysaccharides
 • Carbohydrate
biosynthesis
 o Carbon
fixation:
 o Organic
carbon
is
synthesized
from
inorganic
carbon
–
CO2
 o Light
Independent
reactions
(Calvin
cycle):

occurs
 6x/glucose
 CO2
+ATP
+
NADPH




glucose
+ADP
+
Pi
+
NADP+
 
 2. Peptidoglycan
biosynthesis
&
incorporation
 • Biosynthesis:
occurs
in
cytoplasm
 • UDP
serves
as
2
starting
blocks
for
peptidoglycan
subunit
 synthesis
 o One
UDP
grabs
–
NAG,
The
other
UDP
grabs
–
NAM
 pentapeptide
 • Carries
the
NAG‐NAM
pentapeptide
subunit
from
the
 cytoplasm
and
delivers
it
to
bactoprenol
carrier
within
 membrane
 • A
UDP‐NAM‐pentapeptide
and
a
UDP‐NAG
are
formed
 separately
and
carried
to
cytoplasmic
membrane
 • The
NAM‐pentapeptide
is
transferred
from
UDP
to
 bactoprenol
 • Bactoprenol
serves
as
a
conduit
to
transport
new
 peptidoglycan
subunits
across
the
cytoplasmic
membrane
to
 periplasmic
space
(where
they
are
needed
to
be
put
into
cell
 wall)
 • UDP
is
recycled
 • NAG
is
released
from
its
UDP
and
is
added
to
the
NAM‐ pentapeptide
(still
attached
to
bactoprenol)
 • Complete
peptidoglycan
subunit
formed
 • Second
UDP
is
recycled
 • • 
 
 
 Transport:
from
cytoplasm
to
periplasmic
space
 • Subunit
travels
through
bactoprenol
to
the
periplasmic
space
 • Autolysins
snip
old
NAM/NAG
bonds
&
form
new
ones
to
 connect
new
subunit
with
existing
peptidoglycan
at
the
 NAM/NAG
interfaces

 • Bactoprenol
is
then
‘recycled’
to
carry
another
subunit

 • Peptide
interbridges
(or
crosslinks)
occur
via
 transpeptidation
to
complete
connection
 Anitbiotic
Interference
 • Cycloserines:

prevent
synthesis
of
pentapeptides,
acts
to
 inhibit
transpeptidation

 • Bacitracin:
prevents
re‐binding
to
peptidoglycan
subunits
 and
inhibits
transport
 • Vancomycin:

prevents
transpeptidation
crosslinks
by
 binding
to
the
two
D‐ala
units
in
the
pentapeptide
chain
 • Penicillin:
prevents
transpeptidation
between
layers
by
 inhibiting
transpeptidase
enzyme
 3. Complex
Carbohydrate
Biosynthesis
 • Gluconeogenesis:
non‐photosynthetic
 o Used
by
autotrophs
that
don’t
use
calvin
cycle
and
 heterotrophs
growing
on
carbon
sources
other
than
sugar
 o Synthesis
of
glucose
from
noncarbohydrate
precursors
 o Pyruvate
is
substrate;
glucose
is
product
 • Carbon
Fixation:
photosynthetic
 o Used
by
autotrophs
who
make
own
food
and
get
energy
form
 light
 o Synthesis
of
organic
carbon
from
CO2
and
light
(plants
and
 bacteria)
 o Organic
carbon
is
synthesized
from
inorganic
carbon
–
CO2
and
 energy
from
light‐dependent
reactions
 o Light
Independent
reactions
(Calvin
cycle):

occurs
6x/glucose
 CO2
+ATP
+
NADPH




glucose
+ADP
+
Pi
+
NADP+
 o In
prokaryotes,
pigments
are
in
plasma
membrane,
don’t
have
 chloroplasts!
 • Both
make
glucose
that
can
be
made
to
more
complex
compiunds
 (disaccharids,
polsaccharides,
UDP,
etc)
 ...
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